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Title: Exercise, appetite and cardiometabolic risk markers in South Asian and European men
Author: Benedetti, Simone
ISNI:       0000 0005 0288 3879
Awarding Body: Kingston University
Current Institution: Kingston University
Date of Award: 2020
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South Asians have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than white Europeans. The mechanisms responsible remain partially understood with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness possibly playing a role. Thus, this thesis examined ethnic differences in traditional and unconventional CVD and T2D risk markers including appetite-related hormones and inflammatory markers as well as free fatty acids based on metabolomics methods, between South Asian and white European men. Furthermore, this thesis explored associations with objectively-measured physical activity/cardiorespiratory fitness and examined effects of acute exercise on subjective appetite ratings, appetite-related hormones and ad libitum energy intake. In study 1 (Chapter 3), South Asians exhibited lower fasting acylated ghrelin, high-density lipoprotein and V̇O2max than white Europeans but higher body fat percentage, C-reactive protein, leptin, triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin concentrations. Study 2 (Chapter 4), revealed higher laurate, myristate, palmitate, γ-linolenate and linoleate concentrations in South Asians than white Europeans. Free fatty acids were strongly correlated with body fat percentage and total area under the curve for glucose in South Asians and with total step counts in white Europeans. Study 3 (Chapter 5) revealed similar appetite perceptions, energy intake and appetite-related hormones between ethnic groups in response to exercise although subtle differences were identified with South Asians exhibiting lower appetite perceptions 2 h after the buffet meal, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations at 4 h and lower carbohydrate intake after the exercise. Acute exercise increased concentrations of delta acylated ghrelin and total peptide YY and induced a transient suppression in appetite perceptions at 4.5 h and stimulation at 6.5 h, without provoking energy compensation in both groups. These data demonstrate that South Asian have an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile than white European men which may be linked to their lower physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, these show that South Asians exhibit different levels of acylated ghrelin and FFAs metabolic profile than white Europeans and provide evidence that acute exercise induces a short-term energy deficit irrespective of ethnicity.
Supervisor: Allgrove, Judith ; Moir, Hannah ; Naughton, Declan ; Stensel, David Sponsor: Kingston University
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: cardiovascular disease ; type 2 diabetes ; South Asians ; exercise ; cardiorespiratory fitness ; appetite ; energy balance ; appetite hormones ; free fatty acids