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Title: A Constructivist Grounded Theory of communication during a child's X-ray procedure : 'playing a part in the performance'
Author: Saron, Holly
ISNI:       0000 0005 0286 3325
Awarding Body: Edge Hill University
Current Institution: Edge Hill University
Date of Award: 2020
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Background: There is increasing evidence relating to children's engagement in, and experiences of, health care procedures. However, little is known about children's experiences of undergoing minor or routine procedures such as X-ray procedures, or the communication that occurs during an X-ray procedure. Research aim: To explore the communication that occurs during a child's non-urgent, plain X-ray procedure and how children and their parents experience the procedure. Methods: The study used a qualitative design informed by Constructivist Grounded Theory. Data were generated through non-participant observations of children aged 4-11 years old undergoing non-urgent X-ray procedures. Children and their parents were invited after the procedure to take part in a semi-structured interview. The interviews with children were supported with the use of an activity booklet. Findings: Forty-five X-ray procedures were observed and 17 children and 9 parents were interviewed. Children, parents and radiographers adopted and played specific roles (parts) during the X-ray procedures and these influenced the communication that occurred. Three different, not hierarchical, categories of communication with children were identified. The first category was 'communication where a child was involved', where children's voices and opinions were sought with the expectation that they could change or influence what happened during the procedure. The second category was 'communication where a child was interrupted', where children's voices were overshadowed, or replaced in a supportive way, by the louder voices and bigger roles of the adults present. The third category was 'communication where a child was ignored', where children's voices and opinions were overlooked, silenced or not sought by adults. Children in the third category had a small role and very little power to change or influence what happened during their X-ray, but some children preferred that. The findings have been explored using a dramaturgical lens identifying the different roles, scripts and frontstage and backstage performances that unified the three categories. This lead to the development of an imaginative understanding about 'playing a part in the performance' of a child's X-ray procedure. Conclusion: Children value being engaged in meaningful communication during their X-ray procedure. They also prefer it when they have a choice in how they communicate. They have shown that they are able to communicate during the procedure and about the procedure. This study used a Constructivist Grounded Theory approach, and I sought to include children using participatory methods to co-construct meaning with them and their parents during data collection. Working in this way, led by children's experiences and voices and remaining grounded in the data, led to the use of dramaturgy and dramaturgical metaphors in the 'imaginative understanding' and final discussion. Dramaturgical metaphors have been used to highlights the complexity of social interactions that occur during a procedure and how parents and radiographers communication can constrain or enable children's opportunity and ability to play their chosen part in their procedure.
Supervisor: Bray, Lucy ; Carter, Mary Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Children ; Communication ; X-ray ; Radiological Procedure ; Performance