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Title: Supporting the implementation of restorative approaches within schools
Author: Hay, Craig James
ISNI:       0000 0004 9354 7098
Awarding Body: Newcastle University
Current Institution: University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Date of Award: 2019
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According to the Department for Education national statistics the overall trend in permanent and fixed-term exclusions has increased in recent years. Persistent and disruptive behaviour has consistently been the single most common reason, accounting for more than double the next common reason (Other), and almost triple the third (physical assault against a pupil). The prevalence of mental health concerns for children and young people has also increased in recent years. Restorative Justice has been applied within education over the past couple of decades, which evidence suggests can result in measurable reductions in exclusions, ultimately promoting an inclusive and positive learning environment. Following a number of national pilot studies and reviews in recent years Restorative Approaches (RA) have gathered momentum within UK educational settings and is one emerging response to the rise in challenging behaviour, exclusions and social, emotional and mental health concerns. Despite this growth there is a general lack of research within this field. Implementation of school wide approaches can be tricky in the complex organisational context of schools. Therefore, this review seeks to explore what significant factors may promote successful implementation of RA. Chapter 1 The first chapter of this thesis takes on the form of a systematic literature review. A qualitative approach was taken to explore the facilitating factors to the implementation of RA within the school context. A meta-ethnography was conducted in order to synthesise the findings from five papers. Eight themes were identified: values & philosophy, aims, school management, ownership, resources, policy & pedagogy, staff development and readiness. Implications of this literature review include: the call for critical development and review of school policy, the need for further research particularly within the secondary sector, research around what can be done to further encourage the involvement of school staff, pupils, parents and other members of the school community in the implementation and maintenance of RA in schools. Chapter 2 The second chapter is a bridging document which describes the journey from the systematic literature review (chapter 1) to the empirical research (chapter 3). Within this, the focus of my empirical research and how this evolved will be discussed, reflecting upon the decisions made throughout the research process. Consideration is also given to how my own research philosophy impacted upon elements of the empirical research. Chapter 3 The final chapter presents empirical research involving 15 pastoral staff members in a secondary school adopting a collaborative action research approach and uses a person-centred tool (an adopted PATH) to support the implementation of RA within their school. The research seeks to explore how the role of Educational Psychologists might support the implementation of RA within a secondary school setting. Thematic analysis of the resulting visual graphic, audio transcriptions and researcher notes identified three overarching themes (keeping the momentum going, pedagogy and engagement) and four driving values (mutual respect, honesty, autonomy and competence). The findings also provide support for the use of personcentred planning as a means for supporting organisational change, specifically an adapted PATH. The findings are then discussed in relation to four areas of psychology: Andragogy, Challenge, Dialogue and Self Determination Theory (SDT). The discussion highlights possible aspects of EP practice which may further support the implementation of RA within schools. It considers the use of a person-centred approach as a tool to assist organisational change by critically evaluating data gathered through reflective journals. In conclusion, implications for how EPs may support the implementation of RA within schools are discussed.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available