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Title: The dietary patterns, socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants, and metabolite fingerprints in a community sample of Merseyside takeaway food consumers
Author: Janssen, H.
ISNI:       0000 0004 9347 7560
Awarding Body: Liverpool John Moores University
Current Institution: Liverpool John Moores University
Date of Award: 2019
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Background: Takeaway foods have increased in popularity over the past 40 years and there has been much debate regarding the determinants of their consumption. Whilst takeaway foods are thought to be associated with a number of non-communicable diseases, wider dietary patterns may be more predictive of disease risk than individual foods due to the synergistic effects of food combinations. However, accurate measurement of habitual food, particularly energy-dense nutrient-poor foods, using self-reported dietary assessment tools can be subject to participant bias. Recent research has demonstrated that metabolites derived from individual foods present in urine samples provide biomarkers of dietary exposure. Aim of PhD: To investigate takeaway food consumption within wider dietary patterns of a Merseyside population and their socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants. Additionally, to identify novel metabolite biomarkers from urine samples associated with takeaway foods as a means of validation of self-reported food consumption. Methods: Study 1) Design a food frequency questionnaire (Eating Habits Survey (EHS)) and conduct pilot (n = 26) to test the efficacy of methods prior to a larger scale study. Study 2) Record habitual and takeaway food consumption of study population (n = 1724) using the EHS and use principal component analysis (PCA) to determine dietary patterns. Study 3) Validate the EHS using three 24 hour ‘Multiple Pass’ dietary recalls (3 x 24 h MPR) and metabolomics on urine samples from a sub-sample (n = 151) from Study 2. Results: Being male, in a younger age group, having children in the household, alcohol use and smoking were positively associated (p < 0.05) with takeaway food consumption, whereas being in an older age group 3 and having higher qualifications were negatively (p < 0.01) associated. Nevertheless, specific takeaway food groups were associated at varying degrees. PCA identified some contrasting dietary patterns from the EHS and 3 x 24 h MPR, many of which included ultra-processed foods, and two concurring major patterns; ‘Western’ and ‘Prudent’. Metabolomics determined, for the first time, differences among the metabolite fingerprints of takeaway food consumers, and has shown good biomarker potential for kebab, Indian, English and Chinese takeaway food. Metabolomics validated self-reported dietary intake and determined urinary metabolites associated with habitual exposure to specific foods including poultry, coffee, alcohol, cocoa, oils, and fruit and vegetables. Conclusion: This research makes a novel contribution to knowledge and offers valuable insight into the determinants of takeaway food consumption and wider dietary patterns in the UK adult population. Moreover, it has built on an innovative metabolite fingerprinting technique that distinguishes food exposure from urinary samples. These findings should inform further research in this highly topical area and provide the evidence base to influence the formation of policy and interventions on takeaway food locally and in other areas.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: QH301 Biology ; RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine