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Title: Dictionary learning for sparse representations with applications to blind source separation
Author: Xu, Tao
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2013
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During the past decade, sparse representation has attracted much attention in the signal processing community. It aims to represent a signal as a linear combination of a small number of elementary signals called atoms. These atoms constitute a dictionary so that a signal can be expressed by the multiplication of the dictionary and a sparse coefficients vector. This leads to two main challenges that are studied in the literature, i.e. sparse coding (find the coding coefficients based on a given dictionary) and dictionary design (find an appropriate dictionary to fit the data). Dictionary design is the focus of this thesis. Traditionally, the signals can be decomposed by the predefined mathematical transform, such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), which forms the so-called analytical approach. In recent years, learning-based methods have been introduced to adapt the dictionary from a set of training data, leading to the technique of dictionary learning. Although this may involve a higher computational complexity, learned dictionaries have the potential to offer improved performance as compared with predefined dictionaries. Dictionary learning algorithm is often achieved by iteratively executing two operations: sparse approximation and dictionary update. We focus on the dictionary update step, where the dictionary is optimized with a given sparsity pattern. A novel framework is proposed to generalize benchmark mechanisms such as the method of optimal directions (MOD) and K-SVD where an arbitrary set of codewords and the corresponding sparse coefficients are simultaneously updated, hence the term simultaneous codeword optimization (SimCO). Moreover, its extended formulation ‘regularized SimCO’ mitigates the major bottleneck of dictionary update caused by the singular points. First and second order optimization procedures are designed to solve the primitive and regularized SimCO. In addition, a tree-structured multi-level representation of dictionary based on clustering is used to speed up the optimization process in the sparse coding stage. This novel dictionary learning algorithm is also applied for solving the underdetermined blind speech separation problem, leading to a multi-stage method, where the separation problem is reformulated as a sparse coding problem, with the dictionary being learned by an adaptive algorithm. Using mutual coherence and sparsity index, the performance of a variety of dictionaries for underdetermined speech separation is compared and analyzed, such as the dictionaries learned from speech mixtures and ground truth speech sources, as well as those predefined by mathematical transforms. Finally, we propose a new method for joint dictionary learning and source separation. Different from the multistage method, the proposed method can simultaneously estimate the mixing matrix, the dictionary and the sources in an alternating and blind manner. The advantages of all the proposed methods are demonstrated over the state-of-the-art methods using extensive numerical tests.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available