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Title: Family and school factors on educational outcomes in contemporary Brazil
Author: Goveia Marx, Luana
ISNI:       0000 0004 9347 8467
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2020
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This thesis investigates how family and school factors affect selected educational outcomes in Brazil. In particular, the effectiveness of two nationwide compensatory policies - the National Fund for Basic Education and Bolsa Família - in improving and equalizing educational outcomes is assessed. Three main research questions are answered. First, what are the trends in Inequality of Educational Opportunities (IOE) during the twentieth and beginning of the twentieth-first centuries in Brazil? Second, is there stability or change in average scholastic performance as measured by test scores in language and mathematics over time? Do changing school resources predict average scholastic performance over time? Third, does the Bolsa Família programme improve test scores performance in language and mathematics of poor beneficiary pupils? The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey, Prova Brasil (or Brazil Exam), School Census, Single Registry, and the Attendance System are used to answer these questions. The key findings from the observational studies are as follows. First, there is an equalisation in early educational transitions (completing some and graduating primary education), followed by a strengthening in the association between parental education and the completion of secondary and some tertiary education respectively. We also observe a stable but very unequal trend for completing university degree over time. Second, there are positive gains in average school performance between 2009 and 2015 (compared to the same schools in 2007): from 4 to 24 of a standard deviation for mathematics, and from 19 to 37 of a standard deviation for language. Moreover, increasing selected school resources have significant effects on average school achievement in language and mathematics over time, but the effects are very small, between 0.3 and 2.3 of a standard deviation. Third, there is a positive effect of the Bolsa Família programme on test scores in language and mathematics, but the effect is very small: between 1 and 3 of a standard deviation. This thesis addresses the influence of family and school on inequalities in selected educational outcomes accounting for socioeconomic differences observed by region and school type in a large and unequal developing country. The findings have important implications for future research and policy on this topic.
Supervisor: Chan, Tak Wing Sponsor: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) of Brazil
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available