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Title: Numerical simulation of flooding from multiple sources using adaptive anisotropic unstructured meshes and machine learning methods
Author: Hu, Rong
ISNI:       0000 0004 9350 9331
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2019
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Over the past few decades, urban floods have been gaining more attention due to their increase in frequency. To provide reliable flooding predictions in urban areas, various numerical models have been developed to perform high-resolution flood simulations. However, the use of high-resolution meshes across the whole computational domain causes a high computational burden. In this thesis, a 2D control-volume and finite-element (DCV-FEM) flood model using adaptive unstructured mesh technology has been developed. This adaptive unstructured mesh technique enables meshes to be adapted optimally in time and space in response to the evolving flow features, thus providing sufficient mesh resolution where and when it is required. It has the advantage of capturing the details of local flows and wetting and drying front while reducing the computational cost. Complex topographic features are represented accurately during the flooding process. This adaptive unstructured mesh technique can dynamically modify (both, coarsening and refining the mesh) and adapt the mesh to achieve a desired precision, thus better capturing transient and complex flow dynamics as the flow evolves. A flooding event that happened in 2002 in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom has been simulated to demonstrate the capability of the adaptive unstructured mesh flooding model. The simulations have been performed using both fixed and adaptive unstructured meshes, and then results have been compared with those published 2D and 3D results. The presented method shows that the 2D adaptive mesh model provides accurate results while having a low computational cost. The above adaptive mesh flooding model (named as Floodity) has been further developed by introducing (1) an anisotropic dynamic mesh optimization technique (anisotropic-DMO); (2) multiple flooding sources (extreme rainfall and sea-level events); and (3) a unique combination of anisotropic-DMO and high-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) data. It has been applied to a densely urbanized area within Greve, Denmark. Results from MIKE 21 FM are utilized to validate our model. To assess uncertainties in model predictions, sensitivity of flooding results to extreme sea levels, rainfall and mesh resolution has been undertaken. The use of anisotropic-DMO enables us to capture high resolution topographic features (buildings, rivers and streets) only where and when is needed, thus providing improved accurate flooding prediction while reducing the computational cost. It also allows us to better capture the evolving flow features (wetting-drying fronts). To provide real-time spatio-temporal flood predictions, an integrated long short-term memory (LSTM) and reduced order model (ROM) framework has been developed. This integrated LSTM-ROM has the capability of representing the spatio-temporal distribution of floods since it takes advantage of both ROM and LSTM. To reduce the dimensional size of large spatial datasets in LSTM, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and singular value decomposition (SVD) approaches are introduced. The performance of the LSTM-ROM developed here has been evaluated using Okushiri tsunami as test cases. The results obtained from the LSTM-ROM have been compared with those from the full model (Fluidity). Promising results indicate that the use of LSTM-ROM can provide the flood prediction in seconds, enabling us to provide real-time flood prediction and inform the public in a timely manner, reducing injuries and fatalities. Additionally, data-driven optimal sensing for reconstruction (DOSR) and data assimilation (DA) have been further introduced to LSTM-ROM. This linkage between modelling and experimental data/observations allows us to minimize model errors and determine uncertainties, thus improving the accuracy of modelling. It should be noting that after we introduced the DA approach, the prediction errors are significantly reduced at time levels when an assimilation procedure is conducted, which illustrates the ability of DOSR-LSTM-DA to significantly improve the model performance. By using DOSR-LSTM-DA, the predictive horizon can be extended by 3 times of the initial horizon. More importantly, the online CPU cost of using DOSR-LSTM-DA is only 1/3 of the cost required by running the full model.
Supervisor: Fang, Fangxin ; Pain, Christopher Sponsor: European Union
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral