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Title: Gender differences in the labour market : the case of Vietnam
Author: Phan, Van
ISNI:       0000 0004 9347 3818
Awarding Body: University of Bath
Current Institution: University of Bath
Date of Award: 2020
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This thesis aims at providing better understanding about gender differences in the labour market in Vietnam. In the first empirical chapter, we investigate within the context of Vietnam how circumstances at age 15 or 16 relate to completion of upper secondary education four years later. We exploit the longitudinal elements of Vietnam Access to Resources Household Survey (VARHS) to identify household and commune characteristics and emphasise how the effects of these characteristics vary by gender. The gender differences we find suggest that unequal treatment of girls within their households has a negative impact on their educational attainment and that in the absence of such unequal treatment the reverse gender gap would be even larger. In the second empirical chapter, we examine the factors that are associated with the allocation of male and female labour into wage/salaried employment or selfemployment in the urban labour market by using the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS). Having more education increases the propensity for both men and women to be in wage/salary sector. We find that the probability of working in the wage/salaried sector decreases for both genders due to the burden of the child care. However, sharing child care with the elderly in the household may be the way for women to exit self-employment to be wage-earners. We find significant gender differences in employment allocation. Men are more likely to work in the wage and salaried sector whereas women are more likely to be selfemployed. However, in practice, most self-employment jobs in Vietnam are ownaccount vendors, which reflects insecurity rather than flexibility. The third empirical chapter examines the gender wage gap in urban Vietnam, using the Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS). Since men are more likely to be employed in the wage-salaried sector while women are more likely to be self-employed, we employ the Heckman two stage and the Dublin and McFadden methods to correct for selectivity bias in employment sectoral allocations. We find that women, on average, earn around 8 percentage points less than men. However, after the selection bias correction, the gender wage gap becomes even bigger, with women earnings around 40 percentage points less than men's. Additionally, the gap is predominantly attributable to unexplained factors vis. discrimination.
Supervisor: Mergoupis, Athanassios ; Fichera, Eleonora ; Sessions, John Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available