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Title: Deities of punishment in the Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife : The Amduat, the Book of Gates, the Book of Caverns and the Book of Earth
Author: Morsi, Hamada Hussein
ISNI:       0000 0004 8505 5894
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 2019
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This thesis focuses on four New Kingdom Netherworld Books; the Book of the Amduat, the Book of Gates, the Book of Caverns and the Book of Earth. Although these books have been translated and commented on at length, there has not to date been a systematic and comprehensive study of all the beings inhabiting the Egyptian Netherworld as portrayed in these compositions. This thesis, therefore, analyses the roles of the beings depicted as punitive agents in these books. Through a textual analysis, complemented with references to the iconography of the underworld, the thesis offers a comprehensive analysis of the studied figures and, furthers the understanding of New Kingdome religious compositions. The categorisations of these punitive beings into groups according to the god for whom they undertook the punishment reveals that their epithets relate strongly to the myths of either Re or Osiris. The nomenclature of these beings reveals that some figures appeared for the first time, (and perhaps were only ever attested) in the New Kingdom Netherworld Books. Further analysis also reveals that these epithets do not form a single category. Rather, these epithets range from phases expressing the manifestations of Re and the Solar-Osirian unity, to mere functional epithets describing their immediate punitive function in the Egyptian Netherworld. The examination of the place of the studied beings in the Egyptian 'pantheon' reveals that they were gods (nTrw), rather than demons, and they were subordinate to the great god (nTr-aA) Re. After analysing the potential interaction between the living and these punitive Netherworld beings, it can be concluded that the living had little interaction with them.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral