Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Blooming surfactants : small molecule segregation from PVA films
Author: Fong, Rebecca Jane
ISNI:       0000 0004 8509 5618
Awarding Body: Durham University
Current Institution: Durham University
Date of Award: 2020
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
The segregation of small molecules in polymers is hugely relevant for a wide range of industrial systems. This thesis focuses on the segregation of surfactants in poly(vinyl alcohol) films, which are models for the films used to encapsulate detergent in unit-dose applications. The aim is to isolate and understand factors responsible for segregation observed in a range of model systems, that can ultimately be used to predict and control this behaviour. A diverse range of surfactant segregation behaviours has been identified. The anionic surfactant, SDS, segregates extensively from PVA, with plasticisation by glycerol enhancing the surface excess, and enabling the formation of thermodynamically stable, stacked structures on the film surface. However, the behaviour of zwitterionic amine oxide surfactants in PVA has been shown to reflect their behaviour in water, forming a single monolayer on the surface. By considering the interactions of these lm components in solution using surface tensiometry and by determining their phase behaviour, the roles of surface energy and compatibility in segregation have been assessed. A significant synergistic effect was observed in model lm systems comprising two surfactants, and these observations could also largely be explained by surface energy and compatibility arguments. Assessing the effect of temperature on the distribution of film components has revealed some further migration, or surfactant restructuring after spin-coating. The properties of the polymer matrix is particularly important for this, particularly as the incorporation of plasticisers has been shown to have a significant impact on the distribution of surfactant in films. This has been addressed by exploring the effect of plasticisation and resin degree of hydrolysis on the free volume properties, which are likely to be linked to additive mobility.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available