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Title: Characterisation of drainage systems during large igneous province initiation
Author: Taylor, Ross Alexander Daniel
ISNI:       0000 0004 8505 5157
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2016
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Drainage systems which developed during the initiation of Large Igneous Provinces were subjected to dynamic volcanic and tectonic activity. However, even during periods of intense volcanic activity, terrestrial drainage systems had the capacity to recover and ingress into volcanic terrains which allowed for the re-establishment of ecological communities. This study compares and contrasts the Skye Lave Fields (Selandian, 61-59Ma) which were emplaced within an exhumed, extensional basin in the Sea of Hebridies [sic], NW Scotland; with the sediments intercalated with the Columbia River Basalts (Miocene, 16.6-6Ma) which were emplaced within a back-arc setting and prograded into an ancient drainage basin known as the Clearwater Embayment, Idaho, NW USA. Hyaloclastite sequences dominate the lower succession of the Skye Lava Fields. The Northern Skye region was deprived of large feeder catchments which restricted sedimentary interbeds, composed of fine grained, tuffaceous and carbonaceous sediment, to thicknesses of < 5m. Tabular sheet flows dominate the lower succession of the Columbia River Basalts. However on the margins of the province, thick (average 20m, up to 70m) fluvio-lacustrine sediments intercalated with lava flows. Eruption of high volume lavas caused ponding of the fluvial systems, which were supplied with coarse grained sediment by large, elevated drainage basins. Although very different from a sedimentological perspective, comparable palynological trends were observed in each case study. The lower most deposits in each case were dominated by mature, late successional swamp vegetation. Eruptive episodes resulted in destruction of these early forests, but then recovery of the drainage systems allowed for the establishment of riparian corridors with diverse floodplain communities. Due to the contrasting volcanic and depositional styles, the development of a generic model for LIP initiation which can be applied universally is challenging and individual models should be produced from the detailed understanding of local factors and processes.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Rosebank Consortium
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Watersheds ; Igneous rocks ; Palynology