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Title: Parallel states, public services, and the competition for legitimacy in Kosovo
Author: Madison, Ian
ISNI:       0000 0004 8507 2301
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2020
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Recent work has illustrated how 'non-state actors' can be active and effective governance providers, often at the expense of a state. This has expanded our understanding of the supply side of non-state governance. However, there remains little work on the demand side. How do the people navigate between these different providers? Why do they choose the services of one over another? I argue that the answer rests on two factors: the level of group solidarity individuals are subject to and the unique characteristics of the services they are receiving. Groups are an important part of our social lives, but the extent to which we depend on them varies. I argue that external threats increase group solidarity, which then constrains how individual members decide between providers. Second, public services have different characteristics that influence how people relate to them. Education is collectively delivered and tied to a national identity; decisions depend on social norms. Healthcare is individual and immediate; decisions are rooted in trust. Justice varies between discreet civil cases where people can 'shop' between authorities to gain the 'best' outcome, and criminal cases, which can comprise highly visible, collective events with significant social pressure. Understanding how the factors of group solidarity and service characteristics intersect is key to understanding the demand-side of non-state governance. Drawing on extensive fieldwork, this thesis examines these factors across two periods of competitive governance pluralism in Kosovo. During the first period, from 1989 to 1999, an Albanian 'parallel state' formed in opposition to Serbia and provided education, healthcare, and access to justice in 'parallel' to the services of Serbia. Following the 1999 war and the beginning of the UN administration, parallel authorities were then established in Kosovo's remaining Serb-majority enclaves. Again, education, justice, and healthcare were provided in parallel to the formal Kosovar state.
Supervisor: Friedrichs, Joerg ; Gledhill, John Sponsor: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Canada ; Clarendon Fund
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Politics and government ; Southeast Europe