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Title: Can an over-the-counter 'anti-ageing' formulation repair the extracellular matrix architecture of photoaged skin?
Author: Bradley, Eleanor
ISNI:       0000 0004 8510 1248
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2014
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Introduction: Photoageing is characterised histologically by numerous alterations to the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM), including a loss of fibrillin-rich microfibrils (FRMs) and a reduction in fibrillar collagen content, most notably collagen I, from the papillary dermis. These changes are in part due to an increase in degradation by the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Topical over the-counter (OTC) formulations claim to target these dermal alterations in the repair of photoaged skin. An Alliance Boots No7 'anti-ageing' serum was one OTC product found to repair photoaged skin, which induced dermal repair over both a 6 month period and when applied under occlusion in a 12-day patch test assay. However, it is not known what components of the formulation were responsible for the observed beneficial dermal repair effects. This study aimed to assess the ability of individual components of the serum to induce deposition of dermal ECM photoageing markers in the patch test assay. Method: Healthy but photoaged individuals were recruited to two patch test studies (study one: n = 18, study two: n=8). OTC components were applied to photoaged forearm skin over a 12-day period, with re-application every 4 days. Components tested were: study one: white lupin extract alone and in combination with each of Matrixyl® 3000, retinyl palmitate and an antioxidant mix (composed of mulberry and ginseng extracts and sodium ascorbyl phosphate); study two: white lupin extract alone, Matrixyl®3000 alone and white lupin extract in combination with Matrixyl®3000. In both studies all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA; 0.025%) was applied on day 8 as a positive control, and in the latter study a vehicle control was also applied for 12 days. On day 12, biopsies were taken from each patch site and assessed for markers of dermal repair. These included FRMs, fibrillar collagen content and protease activity. Results: In the first study, white lupin extract in combination with Matrixyl®3000 were the most effective component combinations at dermal repair, inducing deposition of FRMs and fibrillar collagen, and decreasing protease activity, in the papillary dermis as compared to baseline. In the second cohort white lupin extract and Matrixyl®3000 in combination induced deposition of FRMs in the papillary dermis compared to both baseline and vehicle but not when applied alone. Alone they induced deposition of procollagen I in the papillary dermis compared to baseline but not compared to vehicle. In contrast, when applied in combination they showed deposition of processed collagen I in the papillary dermis compared to both baseline and vehicle at the 12-day time point, suggesting faster synthesis and processing of collagen I when applied in combination. Conclusions: These studies suggest that only certain components of the Alliance Boots No7 'anti-ageing' serum are capable of inducing dermal repair in the patch test assay, and that the white lupin extract and Matrixyl®3000 act synergistically to induce beneficial remodelling of photoaged skin.
Supervisor: Sherratt, Michael ; Griffiths, Christopher ; Watson, Rachel Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: skin ; photoageing ; cosmetics