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Title: Spectroscopic analysis of breast cancer : study of tissue microarrays (TMA)
Author: Lazaro Pacheco, Daniela
ISNI:       0000 0004 8506 5523
Awarding Body: University of Sheffield
Current Institution: University of Sheffield
Date of Award: 2020
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. The current gold standard for breast cancer screening is triple assessment using clinical examination, histological assessment and imaging (a combination of X-ray mammography and ultrasound). However, this approach limits the understanding of the subtypes and progression of the disease in terms of biochemical changes. Vibrational spectroscopy has demonstrated its potential to provide diagnostic information. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy can facilitate the prediction of the biochemical progression for different diseases in a rapid non-destructive manner. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy was used to characterise and differentiate normal breast and breast cancer as well as different subtypes and grades of breast cancer. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) are valued in cancer research due to the minimal tissue requirements and excellent correlation with whole tissue sections. TMAs containing breast cancer and normal breast samples were analysed with Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. The cancerous samples include different grades and subtypes and represent similar tribal origins in Nigeria. A total of 578 samples were analysed with Raman spectroscopy, while a total of 273 samples were analysed with FTIR. Biochemical changes were detected for luminal, HER2+, and triple negative breast cancer for grade I, II and III. Spectral data revealed key differences in the concentration of biochemical compounds, such as, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. Principal component analysis (PCA) was able to identify differences that lead to accurate and reliable characterisation of normal breast tissue, and different subtypes and grades of breast cancer. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) confirmed 86% sensitivity and 89% specificity for the Raman spectroscopy results and 92% sensitivity and 86% specificity for the FTIR results. The identified differences represent a stepping stone towards a complete understanding behind the nature of different subtypes and cancer progression. In summary, vibrational spectroscopy showed a good potential in characterising and identifying new spectral markers. These findings provide an insight into different subtypes of breast cancer and the chemical pathway to the cancer progression associated with different grades.
Supervisor: Haycock, John ; Rehman, Ihtesham ; Shaaban, Abeer Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available