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Title: Drawers of water for life, but not for health : how water carriage is associated with the health of water carriers
Author: Geere, Jo-Anne
ISNI:       0000 0004 8501 817X
Awarding Body: University of East Anglia
Current Institution: University of East Anglia
Date of Award: 2019
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Introduction: For many people, water carriage is a regular chore which is essential for life. However, the relationship between water carriage and health of the water carriers is not clear. The aim of this thesis is to answer the research question 'How is water carriage associated with the water carrier's health?' Methods: A systematic review of literature, analysis of data from 49 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and a cross sectional survey conducted in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam were used to investigate the relationship between water carriage and the health of water carriers. Water carriers are most often women and girls of child bearing age, therefore, maternal, early childhood and physical health outcomes were investigated. Results: It was found that water carriage is associated with pain location and increased pain severity, but slightly better self-reported general health. Water carriage is also associated with reduced likelihood of a woman giving birth in a health care facility, reduced uptake of antenatal care, increased risk of child deaths, and increased risk of a child under five years of age having diarrhoea, and being left at home alone. The systematic review additionally highlights that water carriage is associated with fatigue and discrimination or abuse of vulnerable people and revealed plausible mechanisms by which water carriage may lead to psychological distress. Conclusion: Water carriage is associated with a range of negative health outcomes and indicators, suggesting that it is not good for the water carrier's health. Water carriage is a potential barrier to achieving targets of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 6 'Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all' and 3 'Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages'. Overall the data support a conclusion that action should be taken now to reduce the need for water carriage, and to increase the number of people who can access water for household use in their own home or yard.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available