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Title: Molecular mechanisms of myricetin bulk and nano forms mediating genoprotective and genotoxic effects in lymphocytes from pre-cancerous and myeloma patients
Author: Akhtar, Shabana
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2018
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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death across the globe which needs appropriate and cost-effective treatment. Several recent studies have suggested that dietary intake of various flavonoids such as myricetin have a protective effect against different types of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the genoprotective and genotoxic effects of myricetin nano and bulk forms on the lymphocytes from pre-cancerous and multiple myeloma cancer patients compared to those from healthy individuals. Also, to investigate the protective potential of myricetin bulk and nano against the oxidative stress produced in vitro by 2- amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine and reactive oxygen species- induced DNA damage using the Comet assay, micronucleus assay, cellular reactive oxygen species and glutathione detection assay, Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Lymphocytes from the patient groups showed significantly higher levels of basal DNA damage compared to the lymphocytes from healthy individuals which was observed throughout the in vitro treatment. Myricetin in both forms has not induced any significant DNA damage in all of the investigative groups at selective lower concentrations; in fact, the results demonstrate a reduction in DNA damage upon treating with myricetin nano in lymphocytes from pre-cancerous patients demonstrated by significant reduction in micronuclei formation in mononucleated cells. DNA repair capacity of myricetin bulk and nano was determined by co-treating the drugs with hydrogen peroxide. Myricetin significantly reduced the oxidative stress related damage caused by hydrogen peroxide, where myricetin nano seemed to be more effective employing the Comet assay. In the presence of myricetin bulk and nano, the damaging effects of 2- amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine were considerably decreased, where myricetin nano was more effective. This could be because nanoparticles have a larger surface area which could improve their reactivity and also the reduction in size of the particles could improve the anti-cancer properties of this compound. Myricetin has shown genoprotective and anti-oxidant effects by demonstrating the potential to reduce DNA damage caused by over-production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. It has also shown anti-cancer potential in the lymphocytes from multiple myeloma patients by regulating the apoptosis related proteins, dependent on oxidative stress. Therefore, this study suggests that myricetin supplementation in our regular diet with enhanced bioavailability could have potential health beneficial effects and possibly protect against various diseases including cancer.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Myricetin ; Bulk and nano forms ; Genotoxic ; Genoprotective ; Human lymphocytes ; Pre-cancerous blood disorders ; Myeloma patients ; Health individuals ; PhIP ; H2O2