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Title: Kinetic modelling simulation and optimal operation of fluid catalytic cracking of crude oil : hydrodynamic investigation of riser gas phase compressibility factor, kinetic parameter estimation strategy and optimal yields of propylene, diesel and gasoline in fluid catalytic cracking unit
Author: John, Yakubu M.
ISNI:       0000 0004 8504 3682
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2018
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The Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is known for its ability to convert refinery wastes into useful fuels such as gasoline, diesel and some lighter products such as ethylene and propylene, which are major building blocks for the polyethylene and polypropylene production. It is the most important unit of the refinery. However, changes in quality, nature of crude oil blends feedstock, environmental changes and the desire to obtain higher profitability, lead to many alternative operating conditions of the FCC riser. There are two major reactors in the FCC unit: the riser and the regenerator. The production objective of the riser is the maximisation of gasoline and diesel, but it can also be used to maximise products like propylene, butylene etc. For the regenerator, it is for regeneration of spent or deactivated catalyst. To realise these objectives, mathematical models of the riser, disengage-stripping section, cyclones and regenerator were adopted from the literature and modified, and then used on the gPROMS model builder platform to make a virtual form of the FCC unit. A new parameter estimation technique was developed in this research and used to estimate new kinetic parameters for a new six lumps kinetic model based on an industrial unit. Research outputs have resulted in the following major products' yields: gasoline (plant; 47.31 wt% and simulation; 48.63 wt%) and diesel (plant; 18.57 wt% and simulation; 18.42 wt%) and this readily validates the new estimation methodology as well as the kinetic parameters estimated. The same methodology was used to estimate kinetic parameters for a new kinetic reaction scheme that considered propylene as a single lump. The yield of propylene was found to be 4.59 wt%, which is consistent with published data. For the first time, a Z-factor correlation analysis was used in the riser simulation to improve the hydrodynamics. It was found that different Z factor correlations predicted different riser operating pressures (90 - 279 kPa) and temperatures as well as the riser products. The Z factor correlation of Heidaryan et al. (2010a) was found to represent the condition of the riser, and depending on the catalyst-to-oil ratio, this ranges from 1.06 at the inlet of the riser to 0.92 at the exit. Optimisation was carried out to maximise gasoline, propylene in the riser and minimise CO2 in the regenerator. An increase of 4.51% gasoline, 8.93 wt.% increase in propylene as a single lump and 5.24 % reduction of carbon dioxide emission were achieved. Finally, varying the riser diameter was found to have very little effect on the yields of the riser products.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: FCC riser ; Modelling and simulation ; Six-lumped model ; Parameter estimation ; Maximisation ; Propylene ; Optimisation ; Gasoline ; Diesel ; CO2 ; Compressibility factor