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Title: Empirical essays in population economics
Author: Aksoy, Cevat Giray
ISNI:       0000 0004 8499 3037
Awarding Body: Royal Holloway, University of London
Current Institution: Royal Holloway, University of London
Date of Award: 2016
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This thesis combines three empirical essays in population economics. The first chapter is a collaborative work with Professor Christopher Carpenter and Professor Jeff Frank. In this chapter we examine the earnings differences between sexual minorities and heterosexual individuals. Most prior work on labour market outcomes associated with a minority sexual orientation either lacks good information on labour earnings or only studies same-sex couples. We remedy this gap using a large individual level dataset from the United Kingdom that allows us to measure both constructs. We find a large lesbian earnings premium and gay male penalty in couples-based comparisons - similar to previous work - but no meaningful differential when we restrict attention to singles. The second chapter investigates the impact of unemployment on birth rates in England. It sheds light on the mixed results in the existing literature, particularly showing how the relationship between unemployment and fertility rates varies across demographic subgroups. This chapter also contributes to the existing literature by tackling the issue of endogeneity using a Bartik-style instrumental variable approach. The results of this study suggest that female unemployment tends to increase births, whereas male unemployment has the opposite effect. The third chapter explores the effects of house prices on fertility using a new instrumental variable strategy, exploiting exogenous variation in house prices induced by planning restrictions. Existing studies find a positive effect of house prices on fertility rate at the aggregate level. I show that evidence from a country with a highly regulated housing market suggests otherwise and the net effect is negative. I also find that home owners' birth rates respond positively to house price increases, whereas the opposite is true for renters. The estimates for those aged 20-29 imply that the negative effect of house prices on renters' birth rate is much larger than those implied by the older age group. In contrast, the results for those aged 30-44 show that the overall housing wealth effects are larger than those found in the 20-29 age band, and the home owner results are mainly driven by the older age group.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available