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Title: Entrepreneurship and shocks : evidence from developing and transition countries
Author: Kofol, Chiara
ISNI:       0000 0004 8499 0274
Awarding Body: Royal Holloway, University of London
Current Institution: Royal Holloway, University of London
Date of Award: 2016
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A large stream of the recent literature suggests that entrepreneurship boosts economic development, but a key question remains as to how different forms of entrepreneurship, both in developing and transition countries, are affected by shocks. The first chapter of the thesis explores the relation between the change in conflict intensity and the investment in private economic activity (PEA) of nearby households in Afghanistan, exploiting a unique dataset. The analysis identifies the effect of different indicators of conflict on a range of different types of PEA, using a shift-share Instrumental Variables (IV) strategy. The results show that agricultural and low capital-intensive self-employment increase as a consequence of an increase in conflict intensity. The second chapter of the thesis is the first study that links extensive and intensive measures of child labour to conflict in Afghanistan between 2007/8. The effect of conflict on child labour is identified using an IV strategy. The results show that an increase in conflict intensity has a positive impact on the extensive margin of child labour supply and that this increase is entirely driven by the response of 6-12 year old female children. Interestingly, the results also show a decrease in non-domestic hours worked (intensive margin), which is significant just for younger females between 6 and 12 years old. The empirical findings are discussed in relation to the theoretical economic literature on child labour and conflict. The final chapter focuses on the impact of the financial crisis both on European and non-European transition economies. This is the first study that provides a cross-country analysis of the long-run impact of the financial crisis on the labour demand of firms in transition countries. The effect of the financial crisis on firms' labour demand is identified using data from the Business Environment Enterprise Survey 2009-2013, and an IV strategy. The findings show that the share of temporary workers shrank by around 24% between 2009/10 and 2012/13, while no significant impact of the financila crisis was found on the number of permanent workers. The analysis also shows that when we distinguish between European and non-European transition countries, the latter are those driving the results.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: conflict ; entrepreneurship ; child labour ; Afghanistan