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Title: Modifiable lifestyle risk factors of frailty among community-dwelling older people
Author: Kojima, Gotaro
ISNI:       0000 0004 8499 8735
Awarding Body: UCL (University College London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2019
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Background: Frailty is common as people age and is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. With an increasing number of older people worldwide, preventing frailty is recognised as a major public priority. The aims of this thesis are to examine associations between three potential modifiable lifestyle risk factors, smoking, alcohol and fruit and vegetable consumption, and frailty risks among community-dwelling older people. Methods: This thesis used data on community-dwelling older men and women aged > 60 from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), an ongoing prospective panel study of a nationally representative population in England. Frailty was defined by modified frailty phenotype criteria. Information on smoking, alcohol and fruit and vegetable consumption was self-reported. Subsequent frailty risks over 4 years according to the three modifiable lifestyle risk factors at baseline were examined using logistic regression models controlling for potentially confounding factors. Results: Current smokers had a significantly higher odds of frailty risk compared with non-smokers (never and past smokers). Non-drinkers had significantly worse health profiles at baseline and had a significantly increased risk of developing frailty compared with low drinkers (> 0-7 UK units per week). This association was fully attenuated after adjusting for self-reported general health. Among drinkers, alcohol use (of any amount) was not associated with frailty. Consumption of 5-10 portions of fruit and vegetables a day was associated with reduced odds of pre-frailty and frailty combined compared to those with low consumption (0-2.5portions); however those eating high amounts (> 10 portions per day) had a similar risk of frailty as those with low consumption. Conclusions: The findings suggest that smoking cessation and moderate-high consumption of fruit and vegetables (5-10 portions a day) have potential to reduce risk of frailty, however they do not support reducing alcohol consumption to prevent frailty over a short period of 4 years.
Supervisor: Walters, K. ; Iliffe, S. ; Jivraj, S. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available