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Title: Microwave-assisted synthesis of nanoscale calcium phosphate biomaterials and their application in drug delivery
Author: Reardon, P. J. T.
ISNI:       0000 0004 8502 9899
Awarding Body: UCL (University College London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2015
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Calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials are used extensively in the treatment of bone diseases and fractures due to their unique biocompatibility and bioresorbability. The performance of these bone replacement materials can be significantly improved with in situ delivery of proteins/drugs, which further supports bone tissue regeneration at the designated site, and has the advantages of targeted drug delivery. The size, morphology and porosity of these materials directly affect their drug loading capacity, delivery period, and bioresorbability performance. Hence, control over these properties is crucial. However, at present, synthesis techniques for these materials are time consuming and often result in poor control over particle size and shape, and reproducibility is also challenging. The employment of microwave (MW) dielectric heating to the solvothermal method offers rapid and differential heating, giving many advantages such as, high yields, narrow distribution of size/morphology, reduced reaction times with excellent reproducibility, and the potential to form uncommon metastable morphologies. The primary work in this thesis therefore, involves a feasibility study of CaP biomaterials synthesis by a novel microwave assisted solvothermal methodology, in order to produce bioresorbable nano/micro materials with controlled phase, morphology and porosity for protein/drug delivery and bone tissue engineering purposes. Initial synthesis methods yielded monetite nanomaterials with controllable pores without the use of any surfactants, which were found to have enhanced loading and release characteristics for protein BSA compared with a commercially available material. Further study demonstrated improvements in mesostructure and revealed the consistent synthesis of nanoplate, nanorod, and nanowire materials, with higher yields, surface areas and pore volume than comparable materials synthesised at room temperature or using conventional heating methods. Furthermore, underlying MW-assisted mechanisms were discussed based on diverse material characterisation, and their drug delivery capabilities further explored with four different proteins/drugs to demonstrate structure-function relationships.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available