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Title: What are in Learning Disability (LD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) names? : an exploration of LD and ADHD labels in primary mainstream schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Author: Algraigray, H.
ISNI:       0000 0004 8498 2813
Awarding Body: University of Exeter
Current Institution: University of Exeter
Date of Award: 2019
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The objective of the present study was to explore the strength and drawbacks of Learning Disability (LD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) labels on labelled children, general students and general teachers in the context of primary schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The study provided background information of the Saudi context regarding SEN in general and a historical overview of LD and ADHD programmes in particular. Also, it assessed the provisions provided to students with LD and ADHD. Two theories were highlighted in this study, labelling theory (Becker, 1963) and stigma theory (Goffman, 1963). These theories were linked to current research on the phenomenon of labels. Relevant and prior literature to the phenomenon of labels were provided and evaluated to shed light to the scope and gab of this study. A mixed-method design was chosen to serve the research agenda posed by the study. An explanatory sequential design was adopted in which quantitative data were gathered first, followed by qualitative data. A closed-ended questionnaire was distributed to LD parents, LD teachers, ADHD parents and ADHD teachers. Of these, 153 completed questionnaires were received. The aim of the questionnaires was to gain a general and broad picture of the phenomenon of labels. Then, in-depth information and comprehensive understanding were obtained by interviewing a purposeful sample of two LD and two ADHD teachers in primary schools and four parents of children with LD and ADHD. The total number of interviewees were eight. The quantitative findings indicated that participants perceived stigma, lower self-esteem and potential adverse effects of informal labels on children with LD and ADHD. Thus, information collected from the quantitative phase supported the researcher in interpreting and integrating some of the perceptions and practices of participants concerning labels that appeared later on in the qualitative phase. Finding indicated that there large effects on labelled children, their parents and teachers. General teachers seemed to have crucial role in exercising and distributing stigma to children labelled with LD and ADHD. The present study concluded with answering all the research questions, proposing some recommendations for parents, teachers, policy makers and future research.
Supervisor: Boyle, C. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: labelling theory ; stigma theory ; learning disability ; ADHD