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Title: Enhanced carrierless amplitude and phase modulation for optical communication systems
Author: Akande, Kabiru Oluwaseun
ISNI:       0000 0004 8497 5963
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 2019
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This thesis develops and investigates enhanced techniques for carrierless amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) in optical communication systems. The CAP scheme is studied as the physical layer modulation technique due to its implementation simplicity and versatility, that enables its implementation as a single carrier (CAP) or multi-carrier technique (m-CAP). The effect of timing jitter on the error performance of CAP is first investigated. The investigation indicates that synchronization is a critical requirement for CAP receiver and as a result, a novel low-complexity synchronization algorithm is developed with experimental demonstration for CAP-based visible light communication (VLC) systems. To further reduce the overall link complexity, a fractionally-spaced equalizer (FSE) is considered to mitigate the effects of inter-symbol interference (ISI) and timing jitter. The FSE implementation, which eliminates the need for a separate synchronization block, is shown through simulation and VLC experimental demonstration to outperform symbol-spaced equalizers (SSE) that are reported in literature for CAP-based VLC systems. Furthermore, in this thesis, spectrally-efficient index modulation techniques are developed for CAP. The proposed techniques can be divided into two broad groups, namely spatial index CAP (S-CAP) and subband index CAP (SI-CAP). The proposed spatial index techniques leverage the fact that in VLC, multiple optical sources are often required. The spatial CAP (S-CAP) transmits CAP signal through one of Nt available LEDs. It is developed to reduce equalization requirement and improve the spectral efficiency of the conventional CAP. In addition to the bits transmitted through the CAP symbol, the S-CAP encodes additional bits on the indexing/spatial location of the LEDs. The generalised S-CAP (GS-CAP) is further developed to relax the S-CAP limitation of using a single LED per symbol duration. In addition to the S-CAP scheme, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques of repetitive-coded CAP (RC-CAP) and spatial multiplexing CAP (SMux-CAP) are investigated for CAP. Low-complexity detectors are also developed for the MIMO schemes. A key challenge of the MIMO schemes is that they suffer power penalty when channel gains are similar, which occur when the optical sources are closely located. The use of multiple receivers and power factor imbalance (PFI) techniques are proposed to mitigate this power penalty. The techniques result in significant improvement in the power efficiency of the MIMO schemes and ensure that the spectral efficiency gain is obtained with little power penalty. Finally, subband index CAP (SI-CAP) is developed to improve the spectral efficiency of m-CAP and reduce its peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). The SI-CAP encodes additional information bits on the selection of 'active' subbands of m-CAP and only modulate data symbols on these 'active' subbands. The error performance of the proposed SI-CAP is evaluated analytically and verified with computer-based simulations. The SI-CAP technique is also experimented for both VLC and step-index plastic optical fibre (SI-POF) communication links. The experimental results show that for a fixed power efficiency, SI-CAP achieves higher data rate compared tom-CAP. For example, at a representative bit error rate (BER) of 10-5, the SI-CAP achieves a data rate and power efficiency gain of 26:5 Mb/s and 2:5 dB, respectively when compared to m-CAP. In addition, an enhanced SI-CAP (eSI-CAP) is developed to address the complexity that arises in SI-CAP at higher modulation order. The results of the experimental demonstrations in VLC and 10 m SI-POF link shows that when compared with m-CAP, eSI-CAP consistently yields a data rate improvement of between 7% and 13% for varying values of the SNR.
Supervisor: Popoola, Wasiu ; Safari, Majid Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Optical communication ; index modulation ; step-index plastic optical fiber (SI-POF) ; multiband carrierless amplitude phase modulation (m-CAP) ; visible light communication (VLC) ; adaptive equalization ; MIMO ; generalised spatial modulation ; fractionally spaced equalization (FSE) ; timing jitter