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Title: A biomechanical analysis of British Army foot-drill : implications of lower-extremity musculoskeletal injury in age-matched civilian men and women
Author: Rawcliffe, Alex J.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7972 5783
Awarding Body: Edinburgh Napier University
Current Institution: Edinburgh Napier University
Date of Award: 2019
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British Army foot-drill may be a risk factor for musculoskeletal (MSK) injury. However, limited empirical research exists quantifying lower-extremity risk factors of foot-drill in men and women. To better understand and provide greater insight into the potential risk of injury of foot-drill, the aim of this thesis was to conduct a series of studies analysing measures of reliability on foot-drill vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) data (study 1), the effects of in-service footwear on magnitudes of loading across foot-drill (study 2), compare sex-specific kinetic/kinematic characteristics of foot-drill (study 3), and quantify predictors of injury risk following a bout of foot-drill training in age-matched civilian men and women. Study 1: A single familiarisation session and a total of eight-trials demonstrated accurate and stable measures of foot-drill performance for the vGRF variable (Intraclass correlation (ICC) >.075, coefficient of variation of the typical error (CVte%) < 10)). However, poor reliability was reported for vertical rate of force development (vRFD). Nevertheless, these data were used to inform further studies. Study 2: In comparison with the combat boot (CB) and ammunition (drill) boot (AB), the training shoe (TR) demonstrated significant reductions in peak vGRF and vRFD (i.e., potential force mitigating strategy), and greater time to peak force (TTP), demonstrating a reduced rapid rise in vertical force. Study 3: Significant kinetic/kinematic, GRF, and temporal characteristic differences were apparent between sex, whereby greater frontal plane lower-extremity motion was observed for women, with greater GRF, temporal, and sagittal plane motion observed for men across foot-drill. Study 4: Women demonstrated significant alterations in ankle proprioceptive sensibility and static and dynamic postural stability following a bout of foot-drill training, suggesting that the integrity of neuromuscular control mechanisms may be compromised following foot-drill training. In conclusion, footdrill represents a substantial mechanical load on the lower-extremity MSK system and may be a contributing risk factor of lower-extremity MSK injury in men and women.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Edinburgh Napier University
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: musculoskeletal injury ; foot-drill ; British Army ; injury risk ; civilians ; biomechanical analysis ; 612 Human physiology ; QP Physiology