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Title: Exploring the safety of fermented milk (nunu) as a complementary food in Northern Ghana
Author: Daari, Kareem
ISNI:       0000 0004 7972 5302
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2019
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A major challenge affecting complementary feeding (CF) of children 6-23 months in Ghana is poor dietary diversity of the complementary foods; because few mothers include milk and dairy products as complementary foods. Traditional fermented milk known as 'nunu' is available throughout Northern Ghana; however, it is not promoted by health care workers for CF or commonly used by mothers as a complementary food. No research to date, has been done to determine the reasons for not promoting/using nunu as complementary food. Multiple research methods were used to answer this research question. Culture, biochemical and molecular biological methods were used to assess the bacteriological safety of nunu. Also, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were held with mothers and health care workers to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions on the promotion and use of nunu for CF. The sequence analysis and denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) of nunu samples indicate the most prevalent bacteria in nunu were streptococci, there was also a relatively high abundance (often exceeding 10% of total bacterial content) of other potential pathogens (E. coli or Shigella species and Enterobacter). A key finding from the discussion groups and interviews was the concern about the safety of nunu as a complementary food by mothers and health care workers. Further literature search in MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases; and grey literature search in google scholar and FAO/WHO websites identified the adoption and implementation of the Village Milk System-an initiative by FAO; Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system; and the use of starter cultures as community level interventions/strategies that can improve the safety of nunu. This study findings could be used to design interventions to promote the use of nunu as a complementary food with the potential to significantly improve child growth in Northern Ghana.
Supervisor: Poobalan, Amudha ; Scott, Karen P. ; McNeill, Geraldine Sponsor: GETFund ; Ghana
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Fermented milk ; Diet ; Food combining ; Food