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Title: Design of high-speed SerDes transceiver for chip-to-chip communications in CMOS process
Author: Zheng, Xuqiang
ISNI:       0000 0004 7970 3410
Awarding Body: University of Lincoln
Current Institution: University of Lincoln
Date of Award: 2018
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With the continuous increase of on-chip computation capacities and exponential growth of data-intensive applications, the high-speed data transmission through serial links has become the backbone for modern communication systems. To satisfy the massive data-exchanging requirement, the data rate of such serial links has been updated from several Gb/s to tens of Gb/s. Currently, the commercial standards such as Ethernet 400GbE, InfiniBand high data rate (HDR), and common electrical interface (CEI)-56G has been developing towards 40+ Gb/s. As the core component within these links, the transceiver chipset plays a fundamental role in balancing the operation speed, power consumption, area occupation, and operation range. Meanwhile, the CMOS process has become the dominant technology in modern transceiver chip fabrications due to its large-scale digital integration capability and aggressive pricing advantage. This research aims to explore advanced techniques that are capable of exploiting the maximum operation speed of the CMOS process, and hence provides potential solutions for 40+ Gb/s CMOS transceiver designs. The major contributions are summarized as follows. A low jitter ring-oscillator-based injection-locked clock multiplier (RILCM) with a hybrid frequency tracking loop that consists of a traditional phase-locked loop (PLL), a timing-adjusted loop, and a loop selection state-machine is implemented in 65-nm C-MOS process. In the ring voltage-controlled oscillator, a full-swing pseudo-differential delay cell is proposed to lower the device noise to phase noise conversion. To obtain high operation speed and high detection accuracy, a compact timing-adjusted phase detector tightly combined with a well-matched charge pump is designed. Meanwhile, a lock-loss detection and lock recovery is devised to endow the RILCM with a similar lock-acquisition ability as conventional PLL, thus excluding the initial frequency set- I up aid and preventing the potential lock-loss risk. The experimental results show that the figure-of-merit of the designed RILCM reaches -247.3 dB, which is better than previous RILCMs and even comparable to the large-area LC-ILCMs. The transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) chips are separately designed and fab- ricated in 65-nm CMOS process. The transmitter chip employs a quarter-rate multi-multiplexer (MUX)-based 4-tap feed-forward equalizer (FFE) to pre-distort the output. To increase the maximum operating speed, a bandwidth-enhanced 4:1 MUX with the capability of eliminating charge-sharing effect is proposed. To produce the quarter-rate parallel data streams with appropriate delays, a compact latch array associated with an interleaved-retiming technique is designed. The receiver chip employs a two-stage continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE) as the analog front-end and integrates an improved clock data recovery to extract the sampling clocks and retime the incoming data. To automatically balance the jitter tracking and jitter suppression, passive low-pass filters with adaptively-adjusted bandwidth are introduced into the data-sampling path. To optimize the linearity of the phase interpolation, a time-averaging-based compensating phase interpolator is proposed. For equalization, a combined TX-FFE and RX-CTLE is applied to compensate for the channel loss, where a low-cost edge-data correlation-based sign zero-forcing adaptation algorithm is proposed to automatically adjust the TX-FFE's tap weights. Measurement results show that the fabricated transmitter/receiver chipset can deliver 40 Gb/s random data at a bit error rate of < 10-12 over a channel with >16 dB loss at the half-baud frequency, while consuming a total power of 370 mW.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: G400 Computer Science