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Title: Microwave synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles and their use in bio-imaging applications
Author: Alsharif, Marwah
ISNI:       0000 0004 7970 2506
Awarding Body: University of Sheffield
Current Institution: University of Sheffield
Date of Award: 2019
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Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) offer exciting potential in a number of practical areas, particularly in the biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. Their small size (less than 100 nm), low cytotoxicity, high photo stability and strong fluorescence emission make them ideal candidates for the sensing of ions and biomolecules, for uptake in diseased cells, which can then be detected and monitored via the particle fluorescence, and for the efficient, targeted delivery and release of drugs to diseased areas for therapeutic treatments. The aim of this thesis was to synthesise fluorescent carbon nanoparticles using a chemistrybased, bottom-up approach via microwave heating to synthesise them within 5 minutes at 200 ? and 220? respectively. Carbohydrates, especially glucose and sodium alginate, were used as the carbon source, which resulted in an inexpensive one-step production method. Additionally, the CNPs were stable in aqueous solution without the need for surface passivation. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles characteristics have been investigated by using various techniques. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to analyse their structure and morphology. The results indicate that CNPs exhibit an amorphous structure with aromatic rings and carbon double bonds with average particle size calculated from glucose CNPs at 200°C was estimated to be 133.4 ± 22.8 nm, but this increased to 174.15 ± 30.8 nm after heating to 220°C. The particles from sodium alginate were highly agglomerated and formed linear carbon nanoparticle chains because of their high affinity. It proved difficult to isolate single carbon nanoparticles. The fluorescence properties of carbon nanoparticles were found to be dependent on the excitation energies and their dominant peaks were located at different positions. Commonly, the peak positions red shifted with reduced intensity as the excitation energy value increased. Cell lines Fibroblast (HDF), as melanoma cancer cells (C8161), and mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 were exploited for cytotoxicity evaluations. The obtained CNPs, which were found to be non-toxic and biocompatible, can be used as a unique material for bio-imaging applications. In addition, there has been successful uptake seen by different types of cells. Furthermore, these CNPs have readily entered the cytoplasm of selected cells and shown no significant cytotoxicity. The particles were localised at the cell membrane and the cytoplasm.
Supervisor: Claeyssens, Frederik ; Green, Nicola ; Inkson, Beverley Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available