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Title: Isogeometric design, analysis and optimisation of lattice-skin structures
Author: Xiao, Xiao
ISNI:       0000 0004 7968 4002
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2019
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The advancements in additive manufacturing techniques enable novel designs using lattice structures in mechanical parts, lightweight materials, biomaterials and so forth. Lattice-skin structures are a class of structures that couple thin-shells with lattices, which potentially combine the advantages of the thin-shell and the lattice structure. A new and systematic isogeometric analysis approach that integrates the geometric design, structural analysis and optimisation of lattice-skin structures is proposed in the dissertation. In the geometric design of lattice-skin structures, a novel shape interrogation scheme for splines, specifically subdivision surfaces, is proposed, which is able to compute the line/surface intersection efficiently and robustly without resorting to successive refinements or iterations as in Newton-Raphson method. The line/surface intersection algorithm involves two steps: intersection detection and intersection computation. In the intersection detection process, a bounding volume tree of k-dops (discrete oriented polytopes) for the subdivision surface is first created in order to accelerate the intersection detection between the line and the surface. The spline patches which are detected to be possibly intersected by the line are converted to Bézier representations. For the intersection computation, a matrix-based algorithm is applied, which converts the nonlinear intersection computation into solving a sequence of linear algebra problems using the singular value decomposition (SVD). Finally, the lattice-skin geometry is generated by projecting selected lattice nodes to the nearest intersection points intersected by the lattice edges. The Stanford bunny example demonstrates the efficiency and accuracy of the developed algorithm. The structural analysis of lattice-skin structures follows the isogeometric approach, in which the thin-shell is discretised with spline basis functions and the lattice structure is modelled with pin-jointed truss elements. In order to consider the lattice-skin coupling, a Lagrange multiplier approach is implemented to enforce the displacement compatibility between the coupled lattice nodes and the thin-shell. More importantly, the parametric coordinates of the coupled lattice nodes on the thin-shell surface are obtained directly from the lattice-skin geometry generation, which integrates the design and analysis process of lattice-skin structures. A sandwich plate example is analysed to verify the implementation and the accuracy of the lattice-skin coupling computation. In addition, a SIMP-like lattice topology optimisation method is proposed. The topology optimisation results of lattice structures are analysed and compared with several examples adapted from the benchmark examples commonly used in continuum topology optimisation. The SIMP-like lattice topology optimisation proposed is further applied to optimise the lattice in lattice-skin structures. The lattice-skin topology optimisation is fully integrated with the lattice-skin geometry design since the sensitivity analysis in the proposed method is based on lattice unit cells which are inherited from the geometry design stage. Finally, shape optimisation of lattice-skin structures using the free-form deformation (FFD) technique is studied. The corresponding shape sensitivity of lattice-skin structures is derived. The geometry update of the lattice-skin structure is determined by the deformation of the FFD control volume, and in this process the coupling between lattice nodes and the thin-shell is guaranteed by keeping the parametric coordinates of coupled lattice nodes which are obtained in the lattice-skin geometry design stage. A pentagon roof example is used to explore the combination of lattice topology optimisation and shape optimisation of lattice-skin structures.
Supervisor: Cirak, Fehmi Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Isogeomtric analysis ; Subdivision surfaces ; Shape interrogation ; Algebraic geometry ; Structural optimisation ; Topology optimisation ; Freeform deformation ; Thin-shells ; Finite element analysis