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Title: Design and implementation of complexity reduced digital signal processors for low power biomedical applications
Author: Eminaga, Y.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7967 5333
Awarding Body: University of Westminster
Current Institution: University of Westminster
Date of Award: 2019
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Wearable health monitoring systems can provide remote care with supervised, independent living which are capable of signal sensing, acquisition, local processing and transmission. A generic biopotential signal (such as Electrocardiogram (ECG), and Electroencephalogram (EEG)) processing platform consists of four main functional components. The signals acquired by the electrodes are amplified and preconditioned by the (1) Analog-Front-End (AFE) which are then digitized via the (2) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) for further processing. The local digital signal processing is usually handled by a custom designed (3) Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which is responsible for either any one or combination of signal processing algorithms such as noise detection, noise/artefact removal, feature extraction, classification and compression. The digitally processed data is then transmitted via the (4) transmitter which is renown as the most power hungry block in the complete platform. All the afore-mentioned components of the wearable systems are required to be designed and fitted into an integrated system where the area and the power requirements are stringent. Therefore, hardware complexity and power dissipation of each functional component are crucial aspects while designing and implementing a wearable monitoring platform. The work undertaken focuses on reducing the hardware complexity of a biosignal DSP and presents low hardware complexity solutions that can be employed in the afore-mentioned wearable platforms. A typical state-of-the-art system utilizes Sigma Delta (Σ∆) ADCs incorporating a Σ∆ modulator and a decimation filter whereas the state-of-the-art decimation filters employ linear phase Finite-Impulse-Response (FIR) filters with high orders that increase the hardware complexity [1-5]. In this thesis, the novel use of minimum phase Infinite-Impulse-Response (IIR) decimators is proposed where the hardware complexity is massively reduced compared to the conventional FIR decimators. In addition, the non-linear phase effects of these filters are also investigated since phase non-linearity may distort the time domain representation of the signal being filtered which is undesirable effect for biopotential signals especially when the fiducial characteristics carry diagnostic importance. In the case of ECG monitoring systems the effect of the IIR filter phase non-linearity is minimal which does not affect the diagnostic accuracy of the signals. The work undertaken also proposes two methods for reducing the hardware complexity of the popular biosignal processing tool, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). General purpose multipliers are known to be hardware and power hungry in terms of the number of addition operations or their underlying building blocks like full adders or half adders required. Higher number of adders leads to an increase in the power consumption which is directly proportional to the clock frequency, supply voltage, switching activity and the resources utilized. A typical Field-Programmable-Gate-Array's (FPGA) resources are Look-up Tables (LUTs) whereas a custom Digital Signal Processor's (DSP) are gate-level cells of standard cell libraries that are used to build adders [6]. One of the proposed methods is the replacement of the hardware and power hungry general pur-pose multipliers and the coefficient memories with reconfigurable multiplier blocks that are composed of simple shift-add networks and multiplexers. This method substantially reduces the resource utilization as well as the power consumption of the system. The second proposed method is the design and implementation of the DWT filter banks using IIR filters which employ less number of arithmetic operations compared to the state-of-the-art FIR wavelets. This reduces the hardware complexity of the analysis filter bank of the DWT and can be employed in applications where the reconstruction is not required. However, the synthesis filter bank for the IIR wavelet transform has a higher computational complexity compared to the conventional FIR wavelet synthesis filter banks since re-indexing of the filtered data sequence is required that can only be achieved via the use of extra registers. Therefore, this led to the proposal of a novel design which replaces the complex IIR based synthesis filter banks with FIR filters which are the approximations of the associated IIR filters. Finally, a comparative study is presented where the hybrid IIR/FIR and FIR/FIR wavelet filter banks are deployed in a typical noise reduction scenario using the wavelet thresholding techniques. It is concluded that the proposed hybrid IIR/FIR wavelet filter banks provide better denoising performance, reduced computational complexity and power consumption in comparison to their IIR/IIR and FIR/FIR counterparts.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available