Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.781842
Title: Novel methods of measuring and visualising youths' physical activity
Author: Crossley, Sam G. M.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7967 4576
Awarding Body: Swansea University
Current Institution: Swansea University
Date of Award: 2019
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Abstract:
Despite the physiological and psychosocial health benefits of youth achieving at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) every day, only a small proportion of youth in the UK meet this daily target. While there are several reasons for this failure to achieve the recommended amount of MVPA, recent evidence suggests that many youths lack awareness of their physical activity levels (PAL) and have difficulty interpreting and applying the guidelines to their daily activity. One solution to counteract this problem is to utilise and integrate technology, such as an objective measurement of PAL in combination with personalised feedback, to enhance youth's awareness and understanding of, and motivation for, physical activity. Whilst accelerometers are the de facto standard in objectively measuring PAL, they have limitations when it comes to assessing non-linear movements, such as turning, that are habitual to youths' sporadic activity. Study 1, therefore, investigated the energy expenditure of turning in children, finding that the magnitude and frequency of turns completed are important considerations when measuring habitual PAL. Specifically, significant differences in energy expenditure to straight-line walking within speed were established for 2.5 km·hr-1 at 90° turn (~7% increase) and 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 km·hr-1 for 180° turns (~13%, ~14% and ~30% increase, respectively). Nonetheless, one innovative method that has potential to make physical activity targets more comprehensible and actionable for youths is personalised, 3D-printed feedback that can conceptualise their PAL. Therefore, Study 2 explored youths' perceptions of, and designs for, 3D-printed visualisations of PAL. The findings revealed that youths understood the concept of visualising physical activity as a 3D object and felt that such feedback could act as a motivational tool to enhance youths PAL. Following youths' preferences for weekly models represented as abstract and bar-chart designs, two age-specific 3D models were developed to represent MVPA, across a week, with the recommended guideline depicted as a tangible goal. Study 3 sought to validate youths understanding of the age-specific 3D models and intensities of physical activity. Youth were able to correctly interpret the different components of the age-specific 3D models, although showed some misconceptions when defining moderate-intensity activities. Despite this, the age-specific 3D models showed promise to enhance youths understanding of the recommended guideline and associated MVPA intensities. Study 4 subsequently examined the efficacy of the age-specific 3D models within an intervention setting, whereby youth received personal models of their PAL. Over time, the 3D models enhanced youths' awareness of their PAL and provided a tool to compare their MVPA levels to the recommended guideline. Youths displayed their 3D models in their home environments and utilised the models as a goal-setting strategy to increase their PAL. In conclusion, the nature of the 3D models being a blend of personalised feedback, a reward and a goal-setting tool, may offer a unique strategy for the promotion of PAL and associations to the recommended guideline.
Supervisor: Mackintosh, Kelly ; McNarry, Melitta Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.781842  DOI:
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