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Title: Moving Muslims : the Great Northwestern Rebellion and the transformation of Chinese Islam, 1860-1896
Author: Theaker, Hannah Rebecca
ISNI:       0000 0004 7966 3180
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2018
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This thesis explores the history of an empire's attempt to remake its Muslim subjects. The reconstruction process that followed the Great Northwestern Muslim Rebellion (1860-1874) was a highly ambitious project of social engineering that strove not to resurrect the antebellum order, but to transform the entire northwest. Governor-General Zuo Zongtang proposed the resettlement of thousands of Chinese Muslims (Hui) away from their Han Chinese neighbours, on the grounds that separating the two groups was the only way to ensure that violence would not reoccur. Based on extensive archival research using a local Qing county archive combined with gazetteers, Muslim histories, interviews and stele from local areas, this thesis opens with a revisionist history of the role Sufi paths played in the 18th century extension of Qing empire into Gansu's Sino-Tibetan fringes. Whilst the Sufi paths were politically dominant in He-Huang prior to the Great Northwestern Rebellion, the reconstruction period fundamentally changed the structures of everyday life and governance. The new clusters of Muslim settlement and rise of generation of military elites in the postbellum period produced the conditions for a religious revival which ultimately ended the political role of Sufi lineages in borderland life and created the conditions for the arrival of currents of Islamic reformism in China. This outcome is the product of the complex interplay of a new nationalism with older Qing ideas of empire and ethnicity, and of the local, half-implemented reconstruction project that remade the Gansu-Qinghai social world in unanticipated ways. The legacy of the resettlements, however, lives on in the process of minoritization it catalysed: Muslims in China today are considered an entirely separate ethnicity from the Han. Overall, this thesis describes two parallel arcs: the rise and fall of China's Sufi paths and the rise of the Muslim nationalist military lineages, who would become the Republican-era 'Muslim warlords'.
Supervisor: Harrison, Henrietta ; Erie, Matthew Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: East Asian Studies ; History