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Title: Hybrid circuit QED with spin ensembles and carbon-nanotube-based superconducting qubits
Author: Mergenthaler, Matthias
ISNI:       0000 0004 7966 2081
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2018
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Circuit quantum electrodynamics has received an increasing amount of attention over the last decade in light of its potential use in quantum information processing. The underlying principle of this architecture is the coherent coupling between microwave photons stored in superconducting resonators and superconducting qubits made from non-linear, non-dissipative electrical circuits. This architecture can be extended to other solid-state systems with transition frequencies in the microwave regime, such as nuclear and electron spins or Andreev bound states. These hybrid devices would allow the coherent exchange of information between such systems and superconducting qubits mediated by a microwave resonator. This could lead to advances in quantum information processing and new insights in the physics governing these interacting systems. In this dissertation experimental work with different types of hybrid quantum circuits is presented. A first experiment investigates the coherent coupling of microwave photons with a spin ensemble in a correlated and uncorrelated state. The coupling strength and magnetic resonance is studied as a function of temperature and magnetic field direction. A pronounced temperature dependent anisotropy of the magnetic resonance is observed, which can be attributed to the onset of antiferromagnetic correlations in the spin ensemble when cooled below T=4 K. A simple one-dimensional model gives a good description of this anisotropy. A next experiment studies the transport characteristics of carbon nanotubes electrically accessed with normal and superconducting contacts. These devices were characterised using both DC and RF reflectometry techniques. The carbon nanotube devices with superconducting contacts exhibit transport characteristics of Josephson junctions with critical currents of up to Ic~18 nA, as well as multiple Andreev reflections. These semiconductor-superconductor hybrid Josephson junctions are then used to realise a carbon-nanotube-based superconducting qubit with voltage tunable transition frequency using a local electrostatic gate. Strong coupling (g~100 MHz) to a coplanar waveguide resonator is demonstrated via a resonator frequency shift dependent on applied gate voltage. Qubit parameters are extracted from spectroscopy and correspond well to the DC measurements of the carbon nanotube Josephson junctions. Qubit relaxation and coherence times in the range 10-100 ns are observed. The hybrid devices investigated in this work present potential building blocks for more extensive hybrid architectures for quantum information processing.
Supervisor: Laird, Edward A. ; Leek, Peter J. ; Briggs, G. Andrew D. Sponsor: Stiftung der Deutschen Wirtschaft
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Physics