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Title: Development, evaluation and application of protocols for the analyses of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in potable water
Author: Janmohamed, Imran H. S.
Awarding Body: Open University
Current Institution: Open University
Date of Award: 2013
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Potable water distribution systems are a dynamic environment requiring constant monitoring of the levels of contaminants, such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), to ensure a high quality and that the regulatory standards are always met. The monitoring of specific disinfection by-products (DBPs) is not typically continuous as the current industrial practice is manual sample collection, at regular intervals and at known locations, which are then sent to specialist analytical laboratories for analysis. The aims of this project were to develop, optimise and apply new and existing analytical protocols for the analysis of THMs and HAAs from UK water sources. The project also provided an opportunity to evaluate if the methods were suitable for the analysis of THMs in near-real time (HS-GC-MS and HS-SPME-GC-MS). The early monitoring of THMs would allow any corrective measures to be implemented sooner. The suitability of GC-MS (El), GC-MS (ECNI), GCxGC-ToFMS and GC-μECD for HAA concentration measurements was also evaluated. Analysis of HAAs by GCxGC-ToFMS in treated water samples have not been reported before. Apart from the GC-MS (El), the analytical performance of the methods developed were generally equivalent to those used in regulatory laboratories. HS-GC-MS was then utilised to determine the influence of a series of parameters on the formation potential of THMs in upland and lowland water samples. Similarly, GC-μECD and GCxGC-ToFMS were utilised to determine the formation potential of HAAs. GC-μECD was also applied to the determination of HAA concentrations in treated water samples from geographically different sources in the UK. The total HAAs concentration across thirteen sites in England had concentrations well below the US regulated levels of 60 μg/l.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral