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Title: An investigation of municipal solid waste management during the Arba'een pilgrimage in Kerbala, Iraq
Author: Abdulredha, M.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7964 2996
Awarding Body: Liverpool John Moores University
Current Institution: Liverpool John Moores University
Date of Award: 2019
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Every year, religious events (REs) attended by millions of pilgrims, take place in different holy cities around the world. However, research on municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is limited despite the reputation of REs to generate large amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW), which negatively influences the environment and human health when poorly managed. The Arba'een is one of the largest REs in Iraq and worldwide that attracts more than 11 million pilgrims annually. A large quantity of MSW is produced during this event, which is poorly managed and disposed of in a dumpsite without any treatment, due to the lack of research and data about MSW generated during such events. Thus, this research aims to address part of this gap and contribute to new knowledge on MSWM at REs by studying the MSWM system applied at the Arba'een, a subject that has never been considered before. This study adopts mixed methods research approach, employing composition analysis for MSW, questionnaire surveys and interviews with the stakeholders (hoteliers, camp owners, pilgrims and MSWM authorities) and on-site observations as key methods for generation of data. The MSWM system was assessed based on the opinion of the key stakeholders and the Wasteaware benchmark indicators formwork. Numerical models were built to estimate the quantities of MSW produced by pilgrims' accommodation (hotels and camps) based on the characteristics of the accommodation (capacity, area etc.). MSWM services users' (hoteliers, camp owners and pilgrims) intention to participate in a recycling scheme and the variables influence this intention were studied with a view of investigating the possibility of introducing a recycling scheme at REs. The results showed that REs account for 14% of the city's MSW and its main components were organic (57.9%), paper (14.9%) and plastic (14.6%). The MSWM system suffers from operational and governance weaknesses; the key weaknesses are lack of controlled disposal facility, absence of a formal recycling scheme, deficit of key waste-related data, poor public involvement, inadequate planning, and funding limitations. Statistical analyses showed that average municipal solid waste generation (MSWG) from hotels and camps were 112 and, respectively. Hotels' MSWG is influenced by their capacity, staff size and expenditure while camps' capacity, expenditure and food services affect its MSWG. MSWG from hotels and camps can be modelled with a coefficient of determination of about 0.80. In addition, more than 65% of MSWM system users are willing to participate in MSW recycling during REs and it is expected that about one third would perform recycling; this indicates that introducing MSW recycling during REs could be successful.
Supervisor: Kot, P. ; Al Khaddar, R. ; Jordan, D. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering