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Title: Mapping and optimizing an electric vehicle triple supply chain : electric vehicles, energy supply and batteries
Author: Gu, Xiaoyu
ISNI:       0000 0004 7963 4128
Awarding Body: University of Greenwich
Current Institution: University of Greenwich
Date of Award: 2017
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Several governments worldwide have set up measures to promote the electric vehicle (EV) as one option to address environmental issues. However, EV sales figures suggest that the EVs have not been widely accepted by consumers due to cost (notably battery cost), the limited range of products, long recharge times and the limited availability of recharging infrastructure. This indicates the need for in-depth research on the relevant EV supply chains (SCs) to help overcome these barriers. This thesis provides a systematic process for the analysis of EV triple SCs, namely the vehicles, the energy supply and the EV batteries. Three models have been developed for the triple SC-specifically, an EV subsidy model for the vehicle SC; a charging station (CS) selection scheme model for the energy SC; and a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) model for the EV battery SC. Game theory is used in both EV subsidy model and the EV battery CLSC model, and the stochastic analysis with a Monte-Carlo simulation is used in the CS selection scheme model. Numerical analysis is an inherent element of each of the models to demonstrate their applications. The EV subsidy model involves the government, the gasoline vehicle (GV)/EV manufacturer and retailer and the vehicle customer. The optimum profit for each party and the optimal government subsidy are discussed based on mathematical formulas. The results show that the optimal subsidy is the same, whether it is for the EV manufacturer or the EV customer. In the EV energy supply, the author proposes three EV charging station (CS) selection schemes| per-time selection, bulk selection and combined per-time and bulk selection. Using mathematical analysis and simulation, it can be found that the Per-time selection has the best performance. However, combined selection could be the optimal choice for policymakers as it performs similarly to per-time selection while reducing the system cost. Last, the EV battery CLSC model involves the EV battery manufacturer and remanufacturer and divides the entire life cycle into three periods, the author discusses two optimization decisions: to optimize the profit of each party and to optimize the optimal profit. Although the results and relationships are complex, they can be simplified as being linear or quadratic, which is helpful for the stakeholders in the SC. In summary, this research proposes and discusses the EV triple SC that includes the vehicle, the energy supply and the EV battery. However, the interrelationship between internal sub-supply chains is less studied and will be the direction of future research.
Supervisor: Ieromonachou, Petros ; Zhou, Li Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: HE Transportation and Communications ; TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics