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Title: Aspects of the serological relationships between measles, rinderpest and canine distemper
Author: Ramachandran, Sivaramakrishnier
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 1971
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The existence of distinct antigenic relationships between measles, rinderpest and canine distemper was confirmed and extended. The nature and extent of the serological cross-reactions were significantly influenced by the type of host and the degree of exposure to the viruses. In natural hosts, the homotypic and heterotypic antibody responses were similar. In heterologous hosts, however, exposures to the viruses resulted in antibody responses characterized by a range of cross-reactions which indicated that measles and rinderpest were more efficient antigens than canine distemper. 1. Measles virus vas related to rinderpest virus through its envelope and nucleocapsid antigens such that measles haemagglutination and haemadsorption were specifically inhibited by measles and rinderpest antibodies. Moreover, measles virus reacted with rinderpest antibodies in complement-fixation and neutralization tests. However, no reaction occurred when measles virus was diffused through agar gels against rinderpest antibodies. Measles virus was related to distemper virus through the nucleocapsid antigens such that measles antigens reacted with distemper antibodies in complement-fixation tests. In addition, a relationship through the envelope antigens was occasionally demonstrated; a few sera from distemper-convalescent dogs specifically inhibited measles haemagglutination. On the other hand, hyperimmune anti-distemper sera prepared in cattle, horses and rabbits never inhibited measles haemagglutination. Measles antibody neutralised distemper virus and reacted with distemper complement-fixing antigens but no link was evident in cross-immuno-diffusions tests. Rinderpest and distemper viruses were related through the nucleocapsid antigens such that rinderpest antibodies neutralized distemper virus and reacted with distemper complement -fixation and precipitating antigens. 2. Single exposure of animals to measles resulted in the production of antibodies reactive with measles and distemper viruses. Anamnest_ic responses ensued in sensitized animals, on challenge with heterotypic live virus only. Single inoculation of animals with rinderpest virus produced antibodies reactive with rinderpest, measles and distemper viruses. Single exposure of dogs and multiple exposures of other animals to live distemper virus stimulated the production of distemper antibodies and sometimes antibodies reactive with measles antigens. Challenge inoculation with live or inactivated heterotypic virus resulted in anamnestic response. 3. The parameters of measles haemagglutination, haemadsorption, haemagglutination -inhibition, complement- fixation and neutralization tests were studied. Measles and distemper-infected tissues were rich in complement- fixation and precipitating antigens. Production of measles and distemper antigens in cell cultures, however, was poor and was not influenced by the cell type, the age of the cells, dose of virus and temperature of incubation. The yield of measles haemacgiutinins was, however, augmented by pre - treatment of the cells with actinomycin -D and by treatment of the harvests with deoxycholate or a combintion of Tween -80 and ether. Measles virus agglutinated fresh and formolized simian erythrocytes only and the titres were enhanced by pre- treatment of the erythrocytes with neuraminidase. Heterologous agglutinins for simian erythrocytes were found in all animal sera tested. Non -specific inhibitors removable by treatment with kaolin, acetone or a heparin- manganous chloride mixture occurred in cat, dog, ferret and rat sera.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available