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Title: The war on terror and Islamic charities : securitisation and the evolution of policy and practice
Author: Mohamed Said, A. S. M.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7962 8764
Awarding Body: University of Exeter
Current Institution: University of Exeter
Date of Award: 2019
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and impacts of the war on terror on Islamic charities, in the context of evolution of securitization in policy and practice following the events of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States. In the aftermath of 911, a new international regime was instituted which led to increased securitization and risk management at the global, regional, and national levels. The thesis presents evidence that the effects of the new regulations on Islamic charities can be explained and analyzed using securitization frameworks. The study was conducted using qualitative research methodology involving systematic review of the literature. Utilizing this method allowed collection and analysis of a very broad array of both formal academic works and of media reports and grey literature which reflected the pulse of the international community on issues of terrorism and risk. Theoretical frameworks of societal security theory, Copenhagen school of securitization and the risk management theory were used to analyse and organize the research. Findings from the systematic literature review and case studies demonstrated that Islamic charities were negatively affected by the efforts of the United States, and global multilateral financial regulatory enforcement mechanisms such as Financial Action Task Force (FATF), banks, and national regulatory agencies of charitable works. The international community believed that through the process of heavy regulation, charities could be made less vulnerable to penetration by terror groups. In turn, they would be less like to fall prey to being a mechanism by which charitable funds could be transferred to terror groups. Even though the charities are not as vulnerable as the West believes, the US Treasury has continued to freeze and block assets of charitable foundations in an effort to counter terror. A number of initiatives by governments and civil societies to remove obstacles to humanitarian aid and reduce the negative impacts of laws developed as a result of the war on terror are presented in the study.
Supervisor: Githens-Mazer, J. ; Ashour, O. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: War on Terror ; Islamic Charities ; Securitisation ; Risk Management ; Riskification ; Civil Society Organisations and Global Development ; Conflict ; Framing and The Other ; Counter Terrorism ; Anti-Terrorist Financing ; Zakat ; Muslim NGOs and Humanitarian Action