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Title: Actinobacterial fatty acid extracts are a source of cosmetic active ingredients that modulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor y
Author: Symington, Jodie Alexandria
ISNI:       0000 0004 7962 4042
Awarding Body: University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Current Institution: University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Date of Award: 2016
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARy) is an integral nuclear receptor involved in regulating the adipogenic pathway in human cells. The primary function of PPARy is to regulate fatty acid (FA) uptake into several tissues including adipose, heart, kidney and liver and to decrease circulating levels of FAs. Failure to regulate FA uptake increases with age and in addition to health risks associated with dysfunctional lipid metabolism, results in loss of hypodermal skin volume. This causes wrinkling of the skin, particularly on the face and hands, which becomes increasingly apparent with age. Maintaining healthy FA metabolism through PPARy therefore has a number of age-related health benefits. FAs are key modulators of PPARy and it is hypothesised that actinobacteria, which produce many useful natural products, also produce novel FAs that could be used to prevent hypodermal thinning. Therefore a protocol was developed to extract FAs from actinobacteria that interact with PPARy. Taxonomically diverse actinobacteria were selected to develop a bespoke culture collection for the cosmetic industry. Strains were then cultured on various liquid media and three sampling points were collected for FA extraction. The extracted FAs were then tested in vitro for PPARy binding by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer. In addition, lipid accumulation in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) was tested in three different media and with FA extracts of Candida palmioleophila CPO1, which produces a known agonist of PPARy. Results showed that several actinobacteria produced FA extracts that interacted with PPARy, notably Actinomadura latina, a mycetoma causing pathogen, and Verrucosispora maris, an obligate marine actinobacterium. In addition, a FA extract of C. palmioleophila CPO1 was shown to induce lipid accumulation in ASCs on a medium that indicates PPARy activation. In summary, a protocol to detect PPARy activators was successfully developed and used to demonstrate that the phylum Actinobacteria represent a novel source of PPARy activators that could be used in health or personal care.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available