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Title: The interplay between volcanism, sedimentation, and tectonism in basin evolution
Author: Hardman, Jonathon
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2019
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The eruption of volcanic rocks into a sedimentary basin is often related to dynamic changes in basin evolution and, hence, the sedimentary systems and tectonic evolution of a basin. However, the stratigraphic link between volcanism and sedimentation is often poorly understood. This thesis examines contrasting sedimentary basins, the Faroe-Shetland Basin of the NE Atlantic and the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Central Australia, to investigate how volcanism affected the sedimentary, tectonic and petroleum evolution of these basins. In 2004 a major oil and gas discovery was made within the volcanic succession of the Faroe-Shetland Basin, the Rosebank Field. Unusually, the reservoir was a series of intra-basaltic fluvial to shallow marine intervals, giving rise to a new hydrocarbon play concept. Despite the identification of an intra-lava incised drainage system running parallel to the Rosebank field, the play fairway remained poorly defined. However, the eruption of lavas within the Faroe-Shetland Basin is related to the formation of an extensive incised drainage network, providing a potential source of clean sand for the Rosebank Field. This thesis first attempts to understand the controls on intra-basaltic sediments in the CamboRosebank region before forming a detailed stratigraphic link between the volcanic succession and dynamic changes in basin evolution in the Upper Palaeocene and Lower Eocene of the Faroe-Shetland Basin. Dynamic uplift and subsidence are then related to the evolution of the Proto-Icelandic Plume in the Northeast Atlantic. In contrast to the tectonically complex Faroe-Shetland Basin, the Cooper and Eromanga Basins are stacked intracratonic sag basins within Central Australia. Igneous rocks have been recognised in the region, however, their extent and age have remained unclear. This thesis details the extent, character, and age of predominantly monogenetic igneous rocks within the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, recognising a volcanic province in the region. The stratigraphic significance of the volcanism in Central Australia and its relation to the evolution of Australia throughout the Jurassic is detailed. Locally, volcanism is intimately linked with basin structure through the exploitation of pre-existing structural weaknesses. A better understanding of the basin structure can, therefore, lead to an indepth understanding of the distribution of volcanics and intra-basaltic sediments in sedimentary basins. Regionally, the emplacement of volcanics in a sedimentary basin is intrinsically linked to the tectonic evolution of a region. Detailing the volcanic evolution of a basin can, therefore, reveal tectonic events previously hidden within the complex framework of sedimentary basins.
Supervisor: Schofield, Nick ; Jolley, David W. ; Holford, Simon. ; Hartley, Adrian J. Sponsor: Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Basins (Geology) ; Volcanism ; Sedimentology ; Geology, Structural