Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Assessing personal exposure to biomass fuel smoke in sub-Saharan Africa
Author: Okello, Gabriel
ISNI:       0000 0004 7961 2439
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2019
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Full text unavailable from EThOS. Please try the link below.
Access from Institution:
Introduction - Household Air Pollution (HAP) from burning biomass fuels is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low income settings worldwide. HAP is the leading environmental cause of death and disability worldwide. Little is known about the differences in objective personal HAP exposure by age and gender. Methodology - Personal exposure to HAP was measured across six groups defined by age and gender (young children, young males, young females, adult males, adult females, and elderly) in rural households in two sub-Saharan African countries. Data on 24-hour personal exposure to HAP were collected from 215 participants from 85 households in Uganda and Ethiopia. HAP exposure was assessed by measuring carbon monoxide (CO) and/or fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations using five types of air quality monitoring devices. Results 24-hour PM2.5 personal exposure was highest among adult females with Geometric Mean (GM) and Geometric Standard Deviation (GSD) concentrations of 205 µg/m3 (1.67) in Ethiopia; 177 µg/m3 (1.61 GSD) in Uganda. The lowest PM2.5 exposures were recorded among young males GM (GSD) 30.2 µg/m3 (1.89) in Ethiopia; 26.3 µg/m3 (1.48) in Uganda. Young females had exposures about two-thirds of the adult female group. Adult males, young children and the elderly experienced lower exposures reflecting their limited involvement in cooking. There was a similar pattern of exposure by age and gender in both countries and when assessed by CO measurement. Conclusion - There are substantial differences in exposure to HAP depending on age and gender in subSaharan Africa rural households reflecting differences in household cooking activity and time spent indoors. Future work should consider these differences when implementing exposure reduction interventions. There was a strong agreement between optical and gravimetric devices measurements although optical devices tended to overestimate exposure. There is need to calibrate optical devices against a gravimetric standard prior to quantifying exposure.
Supervisor: Devereux, Graham ; Semple, Sean Sponsor: Medical Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Indoor air pollution ; Biomass energy ; Public health