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Title: The dialectics of urban water poverty trajectories : policy-driven and everyday practices in Dar es Salaam
Author: Hofmann, Pascale
ISNI:       0000 0004 7659 7587
Awarding Body: UCL (University College London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2018
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The Joint Monitoring Programme estimates that urban Sub-Saharan Africa experiences the highest levels of water poverty, i.e. much of the housing lacks access to basic drinking water and sanitation services (WSS). While the actual number of people that gained access in urban areas since 1990 may have increased, in Tanzania the percentage of people with improved access to water has declined. Dar es Salaam, a city facing growing challenges with the equitable provision of water services, is no exception. Failure of policy-driven practices (those by government, private sector providers, external support agencies and other key players in infrastructure development) to adequately address urban water poverty, has increased the reliance of poor women and men on a range of everyday practices to meet their WSS needs, including community-managed systems and informal private providers. This thesis examines how 'the urban water poor' move in and out of urban water poverty and how they do so in different ways, exploring the interrelations between policy-driven and everyday practices and their influence on individual trajectories. The research adopts a normative perspective based on principles of socioenvironmental justice that include distribution, recognition and parity of participation, and applies a relational approach that draws on intersectionality scholarship and emphasises intersections of time, space and socioenvironmental relations. Findings confirm a dialectic relationship between policy-driven and everyday practices with multiple examples where conditions under which urban water poverty prevails are produced, reproduced and normalised. However, evidence further shows instances of more transformative practices that challenge unjust processes and outcomes with a potential for people to move out of it. Research findings highlight how spatial and temporal specificity alongside people's intersectional identities and relations, shape individual trajectories and define who can and cannot escape water poverty traps and why. This thesis argues that a relational investigation of urban water poverty trajectories can help tackle the problem by identifying which factors pull people out of urban water poverty and which ones push them deeper into it.
Supervisor: Allen, A. ; Bell, S. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available