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Title: Structural meso and microscale finite element based approaches for the prediction of bone architecture and fracture
Author: Villette, Claire Charlotte
ISNI:       0000 0004 7656 9295
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2016
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From the earliest records on skeletal research, there has never been a doubt about the interrelation between structure and function of bone. Today, there is a consensus on bone functional adaptation and optimisation to its mechanical environment. However, it is rare for bone to be modelled using a structural mechanics as opposed to a continuum mechanics approach. Yet, there is a need for a considered compromise between the high resolution of microscale continuum models and the computational e ciency associated with macroscale continuum models. This thesis aims at developing novel translational and cost-e ective computational methods for the prediction of bone architecture and fracture, based on a structural representation of bone where cortex and trabecular bone tissue are represented using idealised shell and truss or beam elements, respectively. The PhD project approaches this topic from four di erent yet complementary viewpoints, including mesoscale predictive modelling of bone structure using phenomenological rules for bone remodelling, simulations of bone fracture, manufacture of physical mesoscale bone models, and implementation of a surrogate model for bone remodelling at the microscale poroelastic scale. The methods implemented as part of this thesis allow for the prediction of bio delic inner structural architecture in an entire long bone such as the femur or the tibia based on loading associated with daily living activities, rigorously computed using musculoskeletal simulations. Reorientation of trabecular elements is e ciently predicted using metamodelling or poroelastic mechanisms. The approaches presented here also allow for prediction of bone fracture onset and progression until complete structural failure, as well as assessment of the in uence of subject-speci c activity regimes and bone outer geometry on structural organisation and failure behaviour. Physical models are produced using selective laser sintering based on the modelling results, for applications in testing of protective equipment mitigating trauma. Informed recommendations are drawn from this work. The importance of multiple physical activities, speci cally sit-to-stand, to direct femoral architecture is established. The superiority of elasto-plastic over purely elastic bone material formulation for fracture prediction is assessed and the addition of a separate shear strain criterion is shown ine ectual. The strong in uence of the manner of load application in side fall simulations is also highlighted. These methods provide a number of tools to support investigations in various domains of skeletal biomechanics including rehabilitation, implant and prosthetic design, study of clinical conditions such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, design of sca olds for tissue engineering, and development of injury mitigation measures.
Supervisor: Phillips, Andrew Sponsor: Imperial College London ; Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral