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Title: Potential of noble fir, Norway spruce, western red cedar and western hemlock grown for timber production in Great Britain
Author: Gil-Moreno, David
ISNI:       0000 0004 7654 3474
Awarding Body: Edinburgh Napier University
Current Institution: Edinburgh Napier University
Date of Award: 2018
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The limited range of commercial timber species in Great Britain has led the forestry sector to consider wider planting of other species. This research addresses wood properties, particularly relevant to structural timber, of noble fir, Norway spruce, western red cedar and western hemlock in Great Britain. Sampling covered three regions to get a representative sample for the country. Bending stiffness, bending strength, density and twist distortion from drying were assessed. The results showed high yields of C16 for all these species, with Norway spruce and western hemlock performing comparatively well to typical British-grown Sitka spruce. Within this dataset, variation of mechanical properties within trees was more important than differences between species. Strength and stiffness increased with age, whereas density followed different trends in the inner and outerwood. The three properties were modelled based on ring number. The use of acoustic techniques to assess the mechanical properties of wood (in particular stiffness), was investigated in clears, sawn timber, logs and trees. The best results were found combining density with acoustic velocity in sawn timber. The use of acoustic techniques in standing trees was more reliable measuring distances of two or three metres, rather than the commonly used one metre; most likely due to a change in the wave propagation. Tree architecture was studied for timber production and quality. Noble fir described the highest merchantable taper profile. Branchiness varied importantly with height in the stem, and models were built for number, diameter and angle of branches. Western red cedar and western hemlock had fewer but thicker branches compared to noble fir and Norway spruce. Future work should produce grading machine settings and address the variation of timber quality and merchantability under different silvicultural regimes. This thesis concludes that the four species investigated can contribute to diversity the timber industry in Great Britain.
Supervisor: Ridley-Ellis, Daniel ; McLean, Paul Sponsor: Forestry Commission Scotland
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Forestry ; tree architecture ; wood properties ; 582.16 Trees ; QK Botany