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Title: Examining the research-practice gap in Physical Therapy (PT) in the United States of America using knowledge translation interventions (KTIs) : a comparative study
Author: Shibu, Litty Mathew
ISNI:       0000 0004 7660 7319
Awarding Body: Brunel University London
Current Institution: Brunel University
Date of Award: 2018
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This research was undertaken to study the impact of single and multicomponent knowledge translation interventions (KTIs) on barriers to the integration of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) into Clinical Decision Making (CDM) in the context of physical therapists (PTs) and find out which of the two KTIs was more effective. A literature review showed that research knowledge (e.g. CPG) in the field of PT (Physical Therapy) is not being integrated in to clinical practice (e.g. CDM), thus leading to a research-practice (R-P) gap in other words CPG-CDM gap. It is suggested in the literature that the management and behavioural aspects of PTs might be acting as barriers hindering the integration of the research knowledge into clinical practice consequently affecting the delivery of optimum patientcare. Remedial measures, namely KTIs, are suggested to address those barriers and to bridge the R-P gap. However, the phenomenon of the R-P gap, the causes of it and the possible interventions are not well understood concepts in the literature, particularly in the context of PTs. CPG for Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) in PT was chosen as the example of research knowledge. It was argued that barriers have the potential to affect CDM which in turn can affect the CPG-CDM gap. Lack of knowledge about CPG-CDM gap is a major limitation in the literature that is affecting the integration of CPG into CDM. Other gaps found in the literature that have the potential to affect CPG-CDM gap include management and behavioural variables as probable causes of CPG-CDM gap (or barriers), use of KTIs to bridge the CPG-CDM gap and, KTIs. Furthermore, lack of knowledge about relationship between barriers and CPG-CDM gap, KTIs and barriers, KTIs and CPG-CDM gap and the impact of KTIs (effectiveness) in bridging CPG-CDM gap were the other gaps found in the literature that had potential implications to CPG-CDM gap. These gaps were addressed in this research to some extent. Relationships between the independent variables (lack of knowledge of PTs in CPG, lack of favourable attitude of PTs towards CPG and lack of self-efficacy and motivation of PTs to integrate CPG into CDM) and the dependent variables (CDM and CPG-CDM gap) were defined and models were proposed. Further, it was posited that KTIs could impact barriers based on theories and models found in the literature that provided some basis to create the linkage between KTIs and management and behavioural barriers. Education material (EM) and virtual communities of practice (VCoP) were chosen as of the KTIs in this study. The models of Cabana et al. (1999) and Fischer et al. (2016), primarily, were used to ground the conceptual models represented by figures and equations. Methodologically, a positivist approach with an objective ontological stance was employed and a deductive approach and quantitative research method were used to address the research gaps. The research design included a longitudinal element and survey questionnaire. The target population was licensed PTs in the USA. Random sampling was used. Two groups of PTs were identified namely EM-group and VCoP group. Data was collected from the groups before and after administering the KTIs. The results showed that single and multicomponent KTIs impacted barriers in different ways. EM impacted lack of favourable attitude of PTs towards CPG, and lack of self-efficacy and motivation of PTs to integrate CPG into CDM as barriers and narrow the CPG-CDM gap. VCoP was found to impact the combination of four barriers and narrow CPG-CDM gap. In addition, barriers in groups of two were also impacted by VCoP and narrowed the CPG-CDM gap. Furthermore, a CPG knowledge score card and a corresponding CDM score card developed by the researcher were used to test the change behaviour of PTs in integrating CPG into CDM. This experiment showed that barriers existed and caused CPG-CDM gap and KTIs could narrow the CPG-CDM gap. The findings indicate that this research has contributed to knowledge in many ways, including unearthing the relationship between CPG-CDM gap and barriers, better understanding of KTIs, their relationship with CPG-CDM gap and barriers, gaining knowledge about the impact of single and multicomponent KTIs on single and multiple barriers and identification of methods to bridge the CPG-CDM gap.
Supervisor: Gallear, D. ; Eldabi, T. A. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Knowledge translation ; Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) ; Clinical Decision Making (CDM) ; Physical Therapy (PT) ; Evidence Based Practice (EBP)