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Title: Investigations into direct N-arylation reactions
Author: Douglas, Gayle Elizabeth
ISNI:       0000 0004 7658 5439
Awarding Body: University of Leeds
Current Institution: University of Leeds
Date of Award: 2018
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This thesis details investigations and the optimisation of N-arylation reactions using preciousmetal- free conditions. It is an important motif in several pharmaceutical and agrochemical molecules. In 1965 Bock et al described the use of concentrated sulfuric acid and acetic acid as the solvent in a modified version of the Hofmann-Lӧffler-Freytag to carry out direct amination of aromatics via N-haloamines.1 The first section looks at the UV irradiation chemistry where we utilised N-halo species which under photolytic conditions form the aminium radicals. Several examples of tetrahydroquinolines being synthesised in flow have been carried out. Investigations into amination of electron-deficient heterocycles such as pyridines were also investigated. Unfortunately, no N-arylation was observed under the various conditions trialled. Similar investigations have been carried out into the photolysis of N-chloroamides with varying degrees of chain length and position of the amide. Under neutral conditions in the presence of a Lewis acid some success in N-arylation reactions has been observed. In the second section the use of iron(II) salts has been investigated towards the N-arylation reaction via the aminium radial generated from the N-halo species. A variety of substrates containing electron-poor and electron-rich aromatic rings have been synthesised under these conditions. This methodology has been expanded to include an iron salt variant of the work with examples of intramolecular and intermolecular direct N-arylation described. Using our methodology some simple aromatics and the drug naproxen have now been aminated successfully. The use of hydroxylamines as alternative precursors to the aminium radical has also been investigated with some success in the synthesis of various substrates.
Supervisor: Marsden, Stephen Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available