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Title: The role of social marketing in addressing the treatment of driving anger : a cognitive approach
Author: Algaber, Naif
ISNI:       0000 0004 7658 1497
Awarding Body: University of the West of England
Current Institution: University of the West of England, Bristol
Date of Award: 2016
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Driving anger is a topic of continued interest and is one that receives constant public and academic attention. Anger in traffic is an emotion that has a negative impact on driver behaviour; it might distract a driver's attention from driving and cause dangerous behaviour toward the source of anger. In response to this issue, several studies on driving anger have focused on understanding this phenomenon from different angles, including personal factors, situational factors, measurements of anger in traffic and treatment of driving anger. Surprisingly, the treatment of anger in traffic has generally been neglected. Most existing driving anger interventions, such as cognitive, relaxation, and behavioural interventions, are psychotherapeutic and target mainly high-anger drivers. While these interventions are promising, the main limitation of such an approach is not being able to target the larger community and offer wide prevention programs. Therefore, the primary purpose of this thesis is to provide an overarching understanding of the driving anger issue in Saudi Arabia to develop social marketing interventions. To achieve such aim, Lazarus' Cognitive-Motivational-Relational (CMR) model and the principles of social marketing were used to better understand anger in traffic as well as to provide comprehensive direction and structure for the intervention. A mixed methods approach was used to provide empirical investigation of the issue, and therefore the thesis was divided into three studies. First, environmental factors were explored using primary research in the form of a qualitative inquiry. Twelve drivers were interviewed in this phase to identify the type of traffic situation that is most likely to provoke anger and to investigate how they evaluated their incidents. The main finding of the first study was that the harm or disrespect caused by another road user is the main source of anger in traffic. The second study was a quantitative phase that sought to understand the personality factor and coping strategies by using an adapted questionnaire. A total of 652 respondents provided information about the common driving style in Saudi Arabia, which is impatient driving, and how this style negatively affected their driving performance. In third study, the researcher interviewed 18 selected drivers to examine their underlying beliefs, values and attitudes associated with the developed intervention. From a driver's point of view, reducing the negative effect of environmental factors should be the key focus of the intervention. Therefore, the treatment should depart from targeting individual level only and offer an intervention that minimise the negative effect of external factors alongside training drivers how to cope with them effectively.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available