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Title: Key perspectives on Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST) programmes, using Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) programmes in Indonesian prisons as a case study
Author: Komalasari, Rita
ISNI:       0000 0004 7657 0667
Awarding Body: University of Stirling
Current Institution: University of Stirling
Date of Award: 2018
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Background Heroin dependence is associated with increased risk of the transmission of blood-borne viral (BBV) infections such as HIV, as a result of unsafe injecting practices. Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST) Programmes including Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) programmes are a recommended way of addressing heroin dependence with the dual aims of reducing both heroin use and associated harms. However, OST programmes, particularly in prison settings, are often unavailable, in spite of large numbers of prisoners with heroin dependence and the high risk of HIV transmission in the prison setting. Little is currently known about the delivery of OST programmes within prison settings. A systematic literature review conducted within this study revealed that there are only a small number of studies from middle and lower-income countries and the perspectives of the range of stakeholders are often underrepresented. Aim and setting of this study This aim of this study was to understand the role of Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) programmes within the context of HIV prevention programmes and to identify barriers and facilitators that influence the implementation, routine delivery and sustainability of methadone programmes in Indonesian prisons. Study design Three prison settings were selected as part of a qualitative case study. These comprised: a narcotics prison that provided methadone, a general prison that provided methadone, and a general prison, where there was no methadone programme. This allowed the exploration of multiple perspectives of prisoners and the diverse range of staff involved in the implementation of programmes. Interview and observational data were supplemented by data from medical case notes. Qualitative data underwent thematic analysis, with the help of framework analysis for data management. Principal findings This study found that there were many misconceptions about methadone programmes. HIV infection was not recognised as a problem and prison staff, healthcare staff and prisoners alike lacked understanding of the roles of methadone programmes. Prisoners participating in programmes were often stigmatised, while many prisoners believed methadone withdrawal was dangerous and could lead to death. These factors all contributed to low level participation, observed in both prisons with methadone programmes. Lack of confidentiality and associated stigmatisation as well as inappropriate assessment criteria also contributed to this, as did a lack of support systems. A reduction in international funding and a shift in national drug policy priorities away from the provision of methadone to drug-free Therapeutic Community (TC) programmes, together with a failure to embed methadone programmes within the daily prison routine currently pose challenges to effective implementation, delivery and programme sustainability. Conclusion Educating policy makers and practitioners could improve understanding of the roles of methadone programmes and increase support for programme delivery within prisons. It is therefore recommended that Indonesian government and prison policy focuses on ensuring effective delivery and sustainability of methadone programmes for people with heroin dependence in the prison setting.
Supervisor: Haw, Sally ; Wilson, Sarah Sponsor: Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Opioid Substitution--Treatment ; Methadone Maintenance--Treatment ; Indonesian prisons ; effective delivery ; sustainability ; Methadone maintenance ; Prison system ; Opioids ; HIV prevention & control ; Indonesia