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Title: Functional data analysis in orthogonal designs with applications to gait patterns
Author: Zhang, Bairu
ISNI:       0000 0004 7653 9555
Awarding Body: Queen Mary University of London
Current Institution: Queen Mary, University of London
Date of Award: 2018
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This thesis presents a contribution to the active research area of functional data analysis (FDA) and is concerned with the analysis of data from complex experimental designs in which the responses are curves. High resolution, closely correlated data sets are encountered in many research fields, but current statistical methodologies often analyse simplistic summary measures and therefore limit the completeness and accuracy of conclusions drawn. Specifically the nature of the curves and experimental design are not taken into account. Mathematically, such curves can be modelled either as sample paths of a stochastic process or as random elements in a Hilbert space. Despite this more complex type of response, the structure of experiments which yield functional data is often the same as in classical experimentation. Thus, classical experimental design principles and results can be adapted to the FDA setting. More specifically, we are interested in the functional analysis of variance (ANOVA) of experiments which use orthogonal designs. Most of the existing functional ANOVA approaches consider only completely randomised designs. However, we are interested in more complex experimental arrangements such as, for example, split-plot and row-column designs. Similar to univariate responses, such complex designs imply that the response curves for different observational units are correlated. We use the design to derive a functional mixed-effects model and adapt the classical projection approach in order to derive the functional ANOVA. As a main result, we derive new functional F tests for hypotheses about treatment effects in the appropriate strata of the design. The approximate null distribution of these tests is derived by applying the Karhunen- Lo`eve expansion to the covariance functions in the relevant strata. These results extend existing work on functional F tests for completely randomised designs. The methodology developed in the thesis has wide applicability. In particular, we consider novel applications of functional F tests to gait analysis. Results are presented for two empirical studies. In the first study, gait data of patients with cerebral palsy were collected during barefoot walking and walking with ankle-foot orthoses. The effects of ankle-foot orthoses are assessed by functional F tests and compared with pointwise F tests and the traditional univariate repeated-measurements ANOVA. The second study is a designed experiment in which a split-plot design was used to collect gait data from healthy subjects. This is commonly done in gait research in order to better understand, for example, the effects of orthoses while avoiding confounded analysis from the high variability observed in abnormal gait. Moreover, from a technical point of view the study may be regarded as a real-world alternative to simulation studies. By using healthy individuals it is possible to collect data which are in better agreement with the underlying model assumptions. The penultimate chapter of the thesis presents a qualitative study with clinical experts to investigate the utility of gait analysis for the management of cerebral palsy. We explore potential pathways by which the statistical analyses in the thesis might influence patient outcomes. The thesis has six chapters. After describing motivation and introduction in Chapter 1, mathematical representations of functional data are presented in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 considers orthogonal designs in the context of functional data analysis. New functional F tests for complex designs are derived in Chapter 4 and applied in two gait studies. Chapter 5 is devoted to a qualitative study. The thesis concludes with a discussion which details the extent to which the research question has been addressed, the limitations of the work and the degree to which it has been answered.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Mathematical Sciences ; Gait Patterns ; functional data analysis ; functional analysis of variance ; ANOVA