Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Development of a novel bioactive glass propelled via air-abrasion to remove orthodontic bonding materials and promote remineralisation of white spot lesions
Author: Taha, Ayam Ali Hassoon
ISNI:       0000 0004 7653 851X
Awarding Body: Queen Mary University of London
Current Institution: Queen Mary, University of London
Date of Award: 2018
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Enamel damage and demineralisation are common complications associated with fixed orthodontic appliances. In particular, the clean-up of adhesive remnants after debonding is a recognised cause of enamel damage. Furthermore, fixed attachments offer retentive areas for accumulation of cariogenic bacteria leading to enamel demineralisation and formation of white spot lesions (WSLs). Bioactive glasses may be used to remove adhesives, preserving the integrity of the enamel surface, while also having the potential to induce enamel remineralisation, although their efficacy in both respects has received little attention. A systematic review evaluating the remineralisation potential of bioactive glasses was first undertaken. No prospective clinical studies were identified; however, a range of in vitro studies with heterogeneous designs were identified, largely providing encouraging results. A series of glasses was prepared with molar compositions similar to 45S5 (SylcTM; proprietary bioactive glass) but with constant fluoride, reduced silica and increased sodium and phosphate contents. These glasses were characterised in several tests and the most promising selected. This was designed with hardness lower than that of enamel and higher than orthodontic adhesives. Its effectiveness in terms of removal of composite- and glass ionomer- based orthodontic adhesives was evaluated against SylcTM and a tungsten carbide (TC) bur. This novel glass was subsequently used for remineralisation of artificially-induced orthodontic WSLs on extracted human teeth. The novel glass propelled via the air-abrasion system selectively removed adhesives without inducing tangible physical enamel damage compared to SylcTM and the conventional TC bur. It also remineralised WSLs with surface roughness and intensity of light backscattering similar to sound enamel. In addition, mineral deposits were detected on remineralised enamel surfaces; these acted as a protective layer on the enamel surface and improved its hardness. This layer was rich in calcium, phosphate, and fluoride; 19F MAS-NMR, confirmed the formation of fluorapatite. This is particularly beneficial since fluorapatite is more chemically stable than hydroxyapatite and has more resistance to acid attack. Hence, a promising bioactive glass has been developed.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Dentistry ; bioactive glass ; Enamel damage ; demineralisation ; white spot lesions