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Title: Fixed chain-based wireless sensor network for intelligent transportation systems
Author: Alshudukhi, Jalawi
ISNI:       0000 0004 7661 2919
Awarding Body: Oxford Brookes University
Current Institution: Oxford Brookes University
Date of Award: 2016
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are distributed and interconnected wirelessly sensors that are used in a variety of fields of our daily life, such as the manufacturing, utility operations and traffic monitoring. Many WSN applications come with some technical weaknesses and issues, especially when they are used in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For ITS applications that use a fixed chain topology which contains road studs deployed at ground level, there are some challenges related to radio propagation, energy constraints and the Media Access Control (MAC) protocol. This thesis develops a ground level radio propagation model for communication between road studs, and energy efficiency metrics to manage the resources to overcome the energy constraints, as well as a MAC protocol compatible with chain topology and ground level communication. For the challenges of the physical layer, this thesis investigates the use of a WSN for communicating between road-based nodes. These nodes are situated at ground level, and two-way wireless communication is required between the nodes and from the nodes to a roadside control unit. Field measurements have been carried out to examine the propagation close to the ground to determine the maximum distance between road-based nodes as a function of the antenna height. The results show that for a frequency of 2.4 GHz, a range of up to 8m is achievable with 2mW equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP). An empirical near-ground level radio propagation model has been derived, and the predicted results from this model are shown to match closely to the measured results. Since wireless sensor networks have power constraints, green energy efficiency metrics have been proposed for low-power wireless sensors operating at ground level. A numerical analysis is carried out to investigate the utilisation of the green energy efficiency metrics for ground level communication in wireless sensor networks. The proposed metrics have been developed to calculate the optimal sensor deployment, antenna height and energy efficiency level for the near ground wireless sensor. As an application of the proposed metrics, the relationship between the energy efficiency and the spacing between the wireless sensor nodes has been studied. The results provide guidance for energy efficient deployment of near ground level wireless sensors. To manage the communication between large numbers of nodes deployed on a chain topology, this research presents a time division multiple access (TDMA) MAC protocol that is specifically designed for applications requiring periodic sensing of the sensor field. Numerical analysis has been conducted to investigate the optimum transmission scheduling based on the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) for ground level propagation model applied on wireless chain topology. The optimised transmission schedule considers the SINR value to enable simultaneous transmission from multiple nodes. The most significant advantages of this approach are reduced delay and improved Packet Received Ratio (PRR). Simulation is performed to evaluate the proposed protocol for intelligent transport system applications. The simulation results validate the MAC protocol for a fixed chain topology compared with similar protocols.
Supervisor: Ou, Shumao ; Ball, Peter Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral